Uzbekistan - is the focus of the Eastern religions and traditions, culture and culinary preferences. The history of many cities of the ancient state has a century, leaving in the times of Alexander the Great. Due to the peculiar geographical location, many of the old, unique buildings and structures stored in these cities to this day.
Uzbekistan is divided into 12 regions (Andijan, Bukhara, Jizzakh, Kashkadarya, Navoi, Namangan, Samarkand, Syrdarya, Surkhandarya, Tashkent, Fergana, Khorezm) and includes one autonomous Republic of Karakalpakstan.
In the Republic of Uzbekistan 162 district and 118 cities. In the cities, there are more than 42% of the population. The largest city in Uzbekistan - Tashkent the capital of the country, with a population of 2.3 million people.. The second largest city - Namangan (398,000 people). should Samarkand (366 thousand. People) The next largest. Samarkand was the capital of the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic until 1930. A number of major cities located in the Fergana Valley: Andijan (356 ths.); Fergana (320 ths.); Kokand (200 ths.). It should also mention the ancient Bukhara (271 thousand. People), which for centuries was a major cultural and political center of the Uzbek people. Nukus (260 thousand. People) is the capital of the Karakalpakstan Autonomous Republic.


Tashkent - The Capital of Uzbekistan The main city of Uzbekistan is a huge metropolis with a population of over 3 million people. The city is lined with a grid of straight and wide streets and avenues, decorated with emerald green parks, gardens, fountains imbued with crystal strands... This wonderful city is a real embodiment of the modern elegance that is inherent in many world capitals. At the same time it remains to be an oriental city. Tashkent has its own unique flavor. It combines medieval buildings as if descended from the pages of old oriental tales, elegant European architecture from the  period of the Turkestan governor-generalship, standard concrete "boxes" of the Soviet era and, finally, glittering skyscrapers of glass and concrete (modern business centers and banks).

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Samarkand - one of the oldest cities in the world, along with Rome, Athens and Babylon was known as "Marakanda" still in the middle of the first millennium BC and was the capital of the ancient state - of Sogdiana. In the Middle Ages it was the center of a powerful empire Tamerlan. It produced the world's best paper and excellent velvet, stained glass and silk. Today it is the second largest city in Uzbekistan, with a population of over 600 thousand. Residents. During the years of independence Uzbekistan Samarkand became more beautiful, carefully preserving its history and its main treasure - the monuments of medieval architecture, many of which are protected by UNESCO, as a World Heritage masterpieces.

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Shakhrisabz is a small but very pretty town ( "green city", persian) Is just 90 kilometers south of Samarkand, at the foot of the Hissar and Zeravshan ranges, where the confluence of the Aksu and Tankhoz. This is one of the oldest cities in the world. According to some sources, human settlements on this site already existed in 1700 BC. e. Here last phalanx of Alexander the Great, was captured by the satrap of Bactria Bess, infancy anti-Arab movement and the caravans of the Silk Road. Ancient Kesh, birthplace of Amir Timur and the former "domestic residence" Timurid, once was probably velichetsvennee and richer of Samarkand. In the Shakhrisabz are not many historical monuments, but they are unique or have tremendous historical value. The most famous attraction of Shakhrisabz - a palace of Timur's Ak-Saray (White Palace, 1380-1404 gg.), Which was largely destroyed, but recovered rapidly. In addition to the giant 40-meter gate, you can see the magnificent mosaic filigree and unique technology samples of masonry wall, by which to judge what splendor was probably this huge summer residence. In the city there are interesting buildings and later times. Among them honako Malik Ajdar with a majestic dome, quarter mosque Kazy-Guzar having an interesting summer quince on wooden pillars and other structures. Shakhrisabz monuments of ancient architecture - evidence of the greatness of the people whose creative genius was erected the famous portals, vaults, domes, whose spiritualization inspired skilful craftsmen, decorated the buildings whimsical paintings and intricate ornamentation.

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Fergana Valley

The Ferghana Valley is located in the east of Uzbekistan and southern Kyrgyzstan, and is surrounded by mountain ranges: Chatkal in the north, Kurama in the north-west, in the east of Fergana, Alai and Turkestan in the south. Through the valley flows the Syr Darya, the second largest river in Central Asia with a lot of tributaries. It is known that even 5-6 thousand years ago, there has been developed agriculture. They grow pomegranate trees, vineyards, ginger, walnut and cotton, which have become known in China only to the II. BC. In the Ferghana valley passed the main commercial transit from China to Europe - the Great Silk Road. The Fergana Valley was known for its "heavenly horses", as they were called by the Chinese. Scientists have proved that these horses were the progenitors of the famous Akhal-Teke and Arabian horses. The Chinese chronicles II in BC It mentions that in the territory of Davan (Ferghana Valley) was more than 70 cities, the largest of which had an area of over 40 hectares. In IX-X centuries Ahsiket, the capital of Fergana was one of the largest shopping centers, which were minted their coins, and made a first-class steel.Today Fergana Valley - the most densely populated and the most fertile territory of Uzbekistan. Here grow the best cotton, melons, apples and Namangan known far beyond Uzbekistan. The Ferghana valley has preserved the tradition of the old artisans: potters, blacksmiths, goldsmiths. Fergana - the largest producer of natural silk fabrics.

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Nurata located in the foothills of the Nurata Mountains, stretching for hundreds of kilometers from Jizzakh and Hungry steppe, to Navoi and Kyzylkum desert, stretches a small town - Nurata. It is the administrative and cultural center of the mountainous region in Navoi region, and is located nearly 200 km from Samarkand.

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Bukhara - one of the oldest cities in the East, located in the Kyzylkum desert oasis. Even in Chinese chronicles the III. BC. Bukhara is mentioned as a big and developed city. According to legend, the founder of the city was a legendary hero of "Avesta" and "Shahnameh" - Siyavush. In the IX century Bukhara became the center of the powerful Samanid state. Here lived and worked the historian and poet Ferdowsi, Rudaki wrote poems. Bukhartsev believe his countryman and Hodja Nasreddin - the national favorite and famous in the whole East sage and wit. In the XVI century Bukhara became the center of a powerful Emirate. Medieval Bukhara was not only a major political and cultural, but also a significant religious center of the Middle East. Therefore, in Bukhara, like in any other city of Central Asia, the most complete, clearly presented and varied mosques, minarets and mausoleums. The modern Bukhara - Uzbekistan is a regional center with a population - more than 200 thousand people.

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Khiva - the most ancient city in the world, one of the legends based Shem - the son of biblical Noah. The heyday of Khiva falls on the XVI-XVIII century. When Khiva became the capital of the powerful Khanate of Khiva. The final appearance of the city was formed in the late XVIII - early XIX centuries. The old part Ichan-Kala - it is an open air museum, is under the protection of UNESCO. At sufficiently small territory of Ichan-Kala are two of the palace, more than 60 madrassas and mosques, mausoleums, a cathedral mosque, the market, caravanserais and baths, houses. Ichan Kala is surrounded by powerful high ramparts. Administrative and religious buildings are lined with colored tiles with incredible beauty on the patterns. Khiva is distinguished by its masters in wood carving. The columns, gates, windows decorated with sophisticated carvings. Khiva is famous for its woolen carpets and jewelery.

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Termez - one of the ancient cities of Uzbekistan and throughout Central Asia, located on the right bank of the Amu Darya river border Afghanistan. According to legend, the founder of Termez is the first king of Bactria - Zoroaster. The first written reference to the VI century. BC. In 2002 it marked the 2500th anniversary of the city.The town was founded on the site of a convenient crossing of the Amu Darya River, on its right bank. It was here on the Central Asian land invaded by the armies of Alexander the Great in 329 BC. e. As part of the Kushan Empire (I to III century BC. E.) Termez became an important center for the spread of Buddhism. In 705, the Arabs captured the city and gave the region a new religion - Islam. In the IX-XII centuries Termez - big city, shopping, crafts, scientific and cultural center. At this time the length of the fortifications of the city was 10 kilometers, there were 9 gates. In the IX-XII centuries Termez was part of the Ghaznavid State, Seljuk and Karakhanids. In 1206, the city became part of the Khorezm State. In 1220, after a two-day siege of the city was destroyed by the troops of Genghis Khan. In the second half of the XIII century Termez was rebuilt in a new location to the east of the old town, was a member of the Timurid state, then Sheibanids.

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Many centuries ago the ancient city Shurcha was located in what is now the north-western part of Nukus. According to historians, the town was one of the defensive fortresses, protecting the border of the ancient state of Khorezm and allow the control of the Amu Darya waterway. At the end of the 19th century, when Russia incorporated the Khiva Khanate, Petro-Aleksandrovsk (Turtkul) became the centre of the Amu Darya division. The first records about the modern city are dated from the second half of the 19th century. At that period of time it was a little (aul) village made up by rows of yurts surrounded by high clay wall.It had been decided to build a large military fort on the site of village, which was completed in 1874. Soon the population of the fortress, mostly consisted of Kazakhs, began to grow and hospitals, schools and administrative buildings were built around the fortress.

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