Tashkent

 

Tashkent

Tashkent - The Capital of Uzbekistan

The main city of Uzbekistan is a huge metropolis with a population of over 3 million people. The city is lined with a grid of straight and wide streets and avenues, decorated with emerald green parks, gardens, fountains imbued with crystal strands...

This wonderful city is a real embodiment of the modern elegance that is inherent in many world capitals. At the same time it remains to be an oriental city. Tashkent has its own unique flavor. It combines medieval buildings as if descended from the pages of old oriental tales, elegant European architecture from the  period of the Turkestan governor-generalship, standard concrete "boxes" of the Soviet era and, finally, glittering skyscrapers of glass and concrete (modern business centers and banks).

Tashkent is one of the oldest cities along the Great Silk Road from China to Europe. The first information about Tashkent as a city settlement, appeared in the II century BC in the eastern sources. The Chinese chronicles it was called Yuni; in the records of the Persian king skewers I Tashkent oasis was called Chach like. However, some Chinese sources, this area is referred to as Chi, and the Arabs - Shash. According to Beruni and Mahmud of Kashgar, the first time the name of Tashkent appeared in the Turkish documents IX-XII centuries. And in Russia, the XV century it was known as Tashkura.

Already in ancient times, a favorable geographical position and mild climate made Tashkent one of the main points for the Great Silk Road. As proof of this assumption, archaeologists Uzbekistan remains of a settlement Shash-Tepa were found, which was located in the south of the current Tashkent, and was supplied with water Yun River. Here the ruins of defensive walls, and around the remains of the buildings of adobe bricks were found. Outer defensive wall of the citadel included the underground corridor, and was designed with protrusions tower, which was built in accordance with the fortification techniques of his time. The main square of the Old Town - Chorsu - appeared in the IX century. Trade routes led to Chorsu from all the city gates, and gradually turned into shopping streets. This area was a transportation hub and the main shopping area of Tashkent.

Kukeldash located here was built in the XVI century. At the present time the Chorsu area was reconstructed. Now here are the GUM, Central City Pharmacy, Chorsu Hotel and other modern buildings. Mahallas (neighborhoods), located around the square and shopping malls, as well as in the old days, have a name for people inhabiting them, masters of various crafts. For example, in Mahalla Padarkush Shaikhantaur, formerly called "Mahalla Buzchi", which means "district of weavers" (now district C-13). Nearby were other mahalla in the north - Arch-Pile in the south - Dukchi, Zandzhirlik the west - Pushtibag, in the east - Kudukbashi. Mahalla DeRose, anyway Degroz, can be translated as "quarter casters." There have been 20 cast iron workshops. Nearby, on Sebzar was Ahunguzar mahalla, which means "quarter of blacksmiths' and in this place was a lot of forges. And mahalla Tokli complaints received its name because here lived a lot skototorgovtsev.

Since Tashkent was a city of rich merchants and artisans, most of the major architectural structures were presented caravanserais, mosques and mausoleums. Old building, preserved to our days, is the mausoleum, built along trade routes in honor of the righteous sheikhs. These historical monuments of Tashkent were not only a place of worship, charity and feed trade, but also the beautiful scenery to brighten a long way on the desert road. At the Tashkent and along the roads leading to it, there is still about 10 of these mausoleums.

  

Hazrati Imam Ensemble-Madrassah Barak Khan complex, Mausoleum of Kaffal Shoshi, Muyi Muborak madrassah, Tillah Sheikh Mosque,Namozgokh mosque.

The Hazrati Imam Ensemble is a religious complex in Tashkent. The ensemble was erected near the grave of the Imam of the city of Tashkent, a scholar, a connoisseur of the Koran and hadith, one of the first Islamic scholars  in Tashkent, a poet and artisan of Khazrati Imam (his full name is Abu Bakr ibn Ismail al-Kaffal al-Shoshiy). According to historical sources, he was also a master in the manufacture of locks and keys, for which he received the nickname "Kaffal", which means "Locksmith", knew 72 languages ​​and translated the Old Testament (Torah) into Arabic.

There is a library of Oriental manuscripts and the Koran of the Caliph Osman. There are 353 large parchment sheets in the Koran. At first the Koran was in Medina, then in Damascus and Baghdad. From Baghdad to Samarkand, the Koran was transported by Tamerlane. In 1869, the Koran of Osman was taken to St. Petersburg, where it was proven to be authentic. From there the Koran was transferred to Ufa, and only after that the Koran of Osman was transported to Tashkent.

The Koran of Osman, stored in Tashkent, is the only surviving original manuscript of the Koran. This is evidenced by a certificate issued by the UNESCO International Organization on August 28, 2000.

Near the mausoleum there is a house where a master of Sufism, a statesman, a holy Hoja Akhrar Vali lived. Another structure of the Hazrati Imam Ensemble is the Tilla Shaikh Mosque, which was built with the funds of Till Shaikh, one of the richest people of Tashkent of the 19th century.

The Hazrati Imam Ensemble also includes the building of the Spiritual Directorate of Muslims of all Uzbekistan, built by Uzbek folk masters. In the same building is the Committee for Religious Affairs under the Cabinet of Ministers of Uzbekistan.

The construction of the Hazrati Imam Ensemble was completed in 2007. The ensemble consists of the following buildings:

Madrassah of Muyi Muborak, was built in the 16th century. In the madrassah, the hair of the Prophet Muhammad is kept in connection with which it received its name. The madrassah houses the library of the Muslim Board of Uzbekistan. In the library's fund is the Koran of Osman, which dates from 644-648 years, as well as about 20,000 books and manuscripts and translations of the Koran in more than 30 languages. According to some sources, Madrassah Muyi Muborak ("Sacred Hair") was rebuilt in 1856-1857. under the decree of the Kokand khan Mirza Akhmed Kushbegi.

Madrassah Barakhan, it was built in 1531-1532 on instructions of the grandson of Ulugbek - Navruz Ahmadkhan, who had the nickname "Barakhan", which means "successful". Inside the madrassah there are two mausoleums - Suyunidzhikhan Mausoleum, which was erected over the burial of Suyunidzhikhan, the first ruler of Tashkent from the Uzbek dynasty of Sheibanids. The name of the second mausoleum is unknown most probably it was built for Barakhan, but Barakhan was subsequently buried in Samarkand. The doors of the cells of Madrassah Barakhkhan are decorated with ivory and copper.

Namazgokh Mosque, it was built in 1845-1865. It was a place for holding Friday and festive prayers during the reign of Kokand Khan Khudoyarkhan. During the years of the revolution, it was destroyed and plundered, and in the 70s of XX century was restored and transferred to the Office of Muslims of Central Asia. In 1971, the Islamic Institute named after Imam Al Bukhari was opened on the territory of the mosque.

Mausoleum of Hazrati ImamAbu Bakr Ismail Kaffal as Shoshiy. It was erected in the 16th century in honor of Hazrati Imam (Abu Bakr ibn Ismail al-Kaffal al-Shoshiy). The mausoleum or tomb is built with fired bricks, decorated with majolica, has a rectangular shape with a large blue dome above it. The windows of the building are decorated with ganch pandzhara (trellis). It includes a mosque, a burial vault and other premises intended for providing shelter to dervishes in hujras. To both sides of the gravestone "Kaffal Shoshiy" adjoin the chillakhona. In the same place, the sons of Hazrati Imam and his students were buried. The tomb of Hazrati Imam (Abu Bakr ibn Isma'il al-Kaffal al-Shoshiy) is revered by Muslims around the world.

 

Madrassah Kukeldash 

Madrasah is the largest of the 23 madrasahs of old Tashkent, was built no later than 1569 by the minister of the Tashkent Shaybanid sultans Barak Khan and Dervish Khan, who was nicknamed "Kukeldash". The main portal, with a height of 19.7 m, leads to the inner courtyard, bounded by two-storey dormitories in the form of cells - hujra. Each cell consists of a room and an entrance niche - aivan. Two or three students occupied one room. From the towers (guldasta) in the corners of the main portal, muezzin, or azanchi, call on believers to worship (namaz). The portal was badly damaged by the earthquakes of 1866 and 1886. It was restored in 1950-60.

 

The mausoleums of Sufi Zangi-Ata

Zangi-Ata which was very popular in Tashkent, and his wife Anbar-Ana - were obviously built by Tamerlane in the nineties of the 14th century.

The real name of Zangi-Ata is Sheikh Hodja ibn Taj Hodja ibn Mansur. The nickname Zangi-Ata means "black father." He was born in the family of the descendants of Hazrat Arslan Bobo. He was also the fifth Murid of the Sufi Khodja Ahmed Yasawi, who is called the spiritual ancestor of all the Türkic tribes of Central Asia and Kazakhstan. The complex of the mausoleum consists of the following buildings: Namazgokh mosque (1870); minaret (2014); the mausoleum of Zangiata; an inner courtyard with residential cells - hujras of the former madrasah (18th - 19th century); cemetery with the mausoleum of the Ambar bibi.

 

Sheyhantaur

One of the most wide and beautiful avenues of the capital of Uzbekistan - Navoi avenue was called a Sheikhantaur street a hundred years ago, named after the Muslim-respected Sufi Sheikh Havendi al-Tahur (Sheikhantaur), whose mausoleum is located in this part of the city. The At-Tahur Memorial is considered to be the oldest building preserved on the territory of Tashkent. It was built by the order of Amir Temur over the grave of the sheikh at the end of the XIV century.

The personality of Havendi at-Tahur attracted both his contemporaries and descendants, who considered the sheikh to be the wisest of the wise. In his youth, at-Tahur traveled to the city of Turkestan, where he lived for several years in the khanaka of the dervishes, comprehending the mystical philosophy of Ahmad Yassawi. After many years of wandering, he returned to Tashkent and settled at a holy spring. According to legend, in pre-Islamic times this key had a pagan temple of Water and Fire. Here, and died in 1355, Sheikh al-Tahur. At the grave of the saint until the last time grew millenary, lost the leaves and almost petrified from old age trees. The trunk of one of these trees has survived to our days inside the mausoleum of Sheikhantaur, near his grave.

Small inserts of blue and blue majolica in lancet niches and on a small tympanum above the entrance enliven the brickwork of the mausoleum. In the tomb there are two rooms: in one, covered with a dome on a drum with twelve faces, there is a tomb of the at-Tahur. In a smaller room, beneath the dome on the octagonal base are arranged burials that are considered to belong to his wife and son.

Around the revered memorial for several centuries were built the tombs of the rulers of Tashkent and their associates. So by the end of the XIX century there was a necropolis. Now the memorial complex includes three buildings.

Three mausoleums of Sheikhantaur complex have always remained pearls in the necklace of monuments of medieval architecture of Uzbekistan.

 

History Museum

Museum is located in Tashkent and just like the State Museum of Nature of Uzbekistan, is the oldest museum in Central Asia and Tashkent.

In total, the museum has more than 250 thousand exhibits. The museum exposition presents items that allow us to trace the historical development of the peoples who inhabited Central Asia in the past, beginning with the Stone Age and the time when the first state formations appeared on the territory of modern Uzbekistan to the present day.

Among the exhibits of the museum it is worth mentioning a large bronze Saks pottery dating from the 4th - 5th century BC, adorned with animal figurines, and a sculpture of the Buddha of the 1st century AD, which was found by archeologists during excavations in the Surkhandarya region of Uzbekistan.

The museum has a good collection of samples of ancient ceramics and fabrics, a large number of ancient coins, as well as collections of historical documents and works of art. The archaeological, ethnographic and numismatic collections of the museum are unique from the point of view of many historians and archaeologists.

The museum's exhibits, found on the territory of Uzbekistan, as well as rare archival materials, manuscripts, historical documents and photographic materials stored in its funds, allow visitors to get acquainted with one of the oldest centers of the civilization of the East, Central Asia, but also learn about the most important stages of history and the Uzbek people, and other peoples who inhabited the territory of modern Uzbekistan.

Undoubted interest is exhibited in the museum exhibits related to the Timurid era, which allow to fully show the flowering of the medieval civilization of the peoples living in this region, their achievements in science and poetry, in the art of book miniatures, in architecture and various crafts.

The State Museum of History of Uzbekistan was founded on July 12, 1876 as the People's Museum of Turkestan, established in Tashkent in 1876 on the initiative of Russian scientists - members of the Turkestan branch of the Moscow Society of Lovers of Natural History, Anthropology and Ethnography. In a short time since its inception, the museum has managed to replenish not only its main exposition, but also prepared and held a number of international exhibitions: in Paris (in 1900) and in Milan (in 1906). The museum also contributed to the opening of museums in Samarkand (1896) and Ferghana (1899).

Since February 1919, the museum has become known as the State Museum of Turkestan, and later was named the Central  Asian Museum.

During the last 20th century the museum changed its name and location not once. At present, the State Museum of History of Uzbekistan is located in a building on Rashidov Avenue, which was specially built in 1970 for the museum of Lenin created in Tashkent.

 

The Namazgokh Mosque

The Namazgokh mosque is part of the Khast Imam complex and was built between 1845 and 1867. opposite the mausoleum of Abu Bakr Kaffal Shashi. It belonged to the number of suburban festive mosques, which usually collected a huge number of believers.

Dimensions of the mosque are 56.5 x 14.8 m. The winter premise of the mosque is a cross-shaped hall, covered with a high dome. On both sides of it four-span arch-domed galleries in two rows. Along them stretches the columned aivan.

In 1971 the building was restored, and the first and only Islamic institute was opened in the one-story building located inside the Namazgokh mosque. This educational institution prepares theologians, teachers of madrassahs.

Currently, there are 10 secondary special spiritual educational institutions, two women's madrassahs, two higher educational institutions: Islamic Institute named after Imam Al Bukhari, Islamic University.

The Islamic University was opened in April 1999. In this educational institution there are three faculties: the Faculty of History and Philosophy of Islam; Faculty of Islamic Law, Economics and Natural Sciences; faculty of professional development and retraining of personnel. The university prepares specialists who know the basics of religion, history, philosophy of Islam.

Jami Mosque

The Jami Mosque, or Khoja Ahrar Vali is the central element of the ensemble of the Tashkent Old Town. This is the only example in the capital of the so-called Friday mosque (on this day of the week the most solemn prayer is held). Today Jami though looks large, but still a little lost among the variegated development of the central quarters. But in Tashkent at the beginning of the 20th century with its predominantly one- and two-story houses, the Khoja Ahrar Vali Mosque was the tallest building in the city - from here the capital was visible as in the palm of your hand. What, incidentally, used by artists and photographers who created on the roof of the temple.

His modern view of the mosque Jami received recently. The fact is that after many reconstructions, the building of the 15th century has essentially worn out and in the 1990s it began to collapse just before our eyes. As a result, the city authorities decided that it is easier to demolish and build new - already using modern technologies. In 2003, the plan was implemented, and Jami became the third largest mosque in Uzbekistan.

Now not one, but three huge domes crown the ancient hill of the Old City. The mosque looks just as neat and solemn as in old photographs. And thanks to the location next to the ancient market "Chorsu" (chokhar suk-four streets), there always comes a huge number of people.

The main facade of the building, as expected, looks towards Mecca, to the south-west. Numerous arches and niches located above the entrance opening are lancet, typical not for Central Asian architecture, but for European - Gothic architecture. The interior of the mosque is maximally ascetic, without bright ornaments: nothing should distract the orthodox from communicating with Allah. Along the walls there is a vaulted gallery that opens into a long courtyard and takharat-hona  a place for washing before prayer.

Museum of Arts of Uzbekistan

Museum was founded in 1918 as the Museum of the People's University, later the Central Art Museum, since 1924 - the Tashkent Museum of Art, since 1935 - the Museum of Art of Uzbekistan. From 1918 to 1935 years the museum was in Tashkent in the former palace of Prince N. Romanov, from 1935 to 1966. - in the building of the People's House. In 1974, a new museum building (architects I. Abdulov, A. K. Nikiforov, S. A. Rosenblum) was built at the same site, which has a simple cubic volume; facades are divided into square elements by the structures of a metal frame lined outside with stamped sheets of anodized aluminum, the walls of the ground floor and the portal entrance are gray ground with marble. The building from 4 sides is glazed, which creates even matt lighting in the halls. The original collection of the museum consisted of 100 works of art by Prince N. Romanov and other private persons, nationalized in April 1918 - paintings and drawings of Russian and Western European masters, works of sculpture, art furniture, porcelain. Immediately after the creation of the museum, his collection was replenished with works from the collection of the Turkestan Museum of Local History, as well as receipts from museum funds in Moscow and Leningrad. For example, in 1920-1924 the museum received 116 works of Russian art of the XVIII and early XX centuries for permanent display: among them portraits of V.L Borovikovsky, V.A Tropinin, K.P Bryullov, N.A Yaroshenko, and E. Repin and many others. From private collections the museum managed to acquire about 250 pictures of pre-revolutionary artists who wrote their works in Central Asia – is Kazakov, N. Karazin, R.K Sommer.

From the second half of the 30-ies. XX century. the collection of the museum was significantly expanded due to the works of artists of Uzbekistan.

 

Museum of Applied Arts

Products of Uzbek folk crafts, which are very popular in different countries and among foreign tourists, are so unique that they are considered the most important part of the treasury of the national and world cultural heritage. Bukhara and Khiva carpets, national silk and semi-silk fabrics - ikat (khan-atlas, adras etc.) and heel, embroidery-suzani, gold embroidery, national clothes, jewelry art and chasing for metal, carving and painting on wood and ganch(plastering), household and architectural ceramics, as well as many other works of manual production bear a unique imprint of the worldviews and aesthetic tastes of their creators. Wide application of products of various crafts in the people's way of life led to the fact that this form of art has gained mass character. All the new masters, who inherited the experience, technical and artistic traditions of many generations, were involved in creativity. This art is conquered by deep emotional sounding, high culture of form, drawing and color. The main and richest storehouse of these rarities is the State Museum of Applied Arts of Uzbekistan under the Ministry of Culture and Sports of the Republic of Uzbekistan. Its funds number more than 7 thousand exhibits. Several hundred, the most outstanding of them, are represented in the expositions of 13 rooms with 20 thematic collections, where over 50 kinds of craftsmen's products are on display and on our website.

These are works of folk, most often hereditary masters, following the traditions of several generations of professional artisans who create original works of applied art. Many of them not only strictly adhere to the aesthetic canons of regional art schools and long-standing traditions, but also bring their vision to the works, seeking to modernize classical forms. Most of the items exhibited in the museum's exposition and funds were made in the 20th century, but there are items dating back to the 19th century and earlier periods. National fabrics from Marghilan, Samarkand, Bukhara, Namangan and other cities of Uzbekistan have been deservedly popular among foreign fashion and couturiers for many centuries nowadays.

Pottery of Rishtan and other masters was repeatedly awarded with gold and silver medals at international exhibitions. Our collection, attracting the attention of ethnographers and art historians and museum workers, all true connoisseurs and admirers of folk art, interested in the history of the centuries-old culture of Uzbekistan, has become the most important and fascinating object of visiting among foreign tourists.

Since 1938 the museum is housed in an architectural monument of the late XIX century, known as the "House of Polovtsev." Restructuring and decoration of the house built in the 1870s was carried out in 1896-1904 with the participation of folk craftsmen of ceramics, carving and painting on wood and ganch from Tashkent and the Fergana Valley: Sherali-Khodji Khasanov, Arslan-kul Nazarov, Tashpulat Arslan-kulov, Alimdjan Kasimdjanov, Usto Norkuzi Nurmatov (Kokand), Usto Abdullo (Rishtan) and Umurzak Akhmedov (Margilan). All works on the decoration of the building were directed by M.S.Andreev, who later became a famous ethnographer, professor and academician.

The museum building is a fine example of high skill of architectural and decorative art.

The most richly decorated is its central hall. Carving and painting on wood and ganch, mosaic panels of glazed terracotta tiles in the interiors and on the main facade of the house with their rich color palette organically combined with the overall composition of the whole structure, emphasizing the unique architectural forms

In 2010, they reconstructed the courtyard with a fountain and rockeries, decorating them with landscapes with decorative ceramic pots and retro phones with a backlit building against the backdrop of lawns with flowers and natural materials. Re-designed, leaving the courtyard entrance and exit from the suite of rooms of the U-shaped building of the museum. Now they are decorated with carved doors and lancet portal compositions with ganch carvings made by the correspondingly hereditary master in the 6th generation Jamshid Gaipov and Talat Turgunov.

The museum's funds are constantly replenished through the collection and purchase of works of art from the people's masters, the best examples of products of art crafts and enterprises, and the exchange of exhibits with other museums. In the museum there are departments: administrative, funds, excursion and research, where more than 10 researchers are engaged in studying the history of folk decorative and applied.

Monument "Courage"

Tashkent residents and guests of the capital come to the memorial complex "Courage" erected on the site of the epicenter of the earthquake, not only on April 26. For many, this place is expensive in its own way. Someone lays flowers on the wedding day, someone honors the memory of their grandfathers and fathers who came to Uzbekistan 50 years ago for a large construction project.

Today in Tashkent, remember the tragic events of 1966 - a powerful earthquake that destroyed the city. The memorial complex "Courage" erected on the site of the epicenter of that earthquake serves as a symbol of resoluteness of Uzbeks, as well as friendship of peoples united for the restoration of Tashkent.

Tashkent residents and guests of the capital come here not only on April 26. For many, this place is expensive in its own way. Someone lays flowers on the wedding day, someone honors the memory of their grandfathers and fathers who came to Uzbekistan 50 years ago for a large construction project.

The official opening of the memorial took place on May 20, 1970. Its "semantic center" is a cube of black labradorite, split in two. On one side is cut the date of the earthquake: April 26, 1966. On the other side, the clock face with arrows indicating the time of that tragedy is 5 hours and 24 minutes. The cube splits the crack, which symbolizes the break of the earth's solid and continues to the foot of the bronze sculpture.

The main images of the sculpture are a woman holding a child to her. With one hand she makes a detachment movement, as if protecting the baby from adversity. The male figure, portrayed in a leap forward, obscures them with her breast from the impact of the elements.

To the marble pedestal there are 7 paths leading to 14 stellar with bas-reliefs depicting the labor of the builders. The stellar symbolize the assistance provided to Tashkent by the fraternal republics of the former Soviet Union.

 

Museum of Temurids

 The State Museum of History of the Temurids was opened in Tashkent on October 18, 1996. The museum was erected in the center of Tashkent to the 660th anniversary of Amir Temur.

The museum building is a synthesis of the medieval, to be exact, "Temurid" period, and modern architectural styles. It has a round shape with a large ribbed dome decorated with blue majolica, with parapets on the roof, an open aivan and slender columns. In the decoration of columns, floors and grand staircases, snow-white marble was used. In the best traditions of the eastern architecture painted a dome from the inside. Garnished with fine garnish carving, it is covered with a thin layer of gold leaf.

The building has three floors, the first of which is reserved for office space, while the second and third houses the museum's exposition. In the center of the main hall is a copy of the famous holy book of Muslims - the Koran of Osman.

Impressive visitors to the museum and a large panel in the style of miniature called "Great Temur - the great creator", made by a group of Uzbek artists in 1996. The picture reflects the life of Amir Temur from his birth to his death. Here is depicted a shooting star, symbolizing the translation of his name "Sakhibkiran", as "born under a happy star." Also in this part are located such symbols as the sacred bird Khumo, personifying happiness and freedom, the falcon bird symbolizing the birth of the baby and its high ups.

 In the second part of the panel there is the creative activity of the great ruler, majestic buildings: the Ak-Saray Palace in Shakhrisabz and the Bibi-Khanum Mosque in Samarkand. And the third, the final part of the panel is the last stage of Amir Temur's life, his tomb is the mausoleum of Gur-Emir. In general, the picture is accompanied by a stream running in its direction, which unites all three parts of the panel. An aspiring river personifies the rhythm and flow of life of the great Sakhibkiran.

Since the first days of its existence, the museum has become the center of scientific thought and enlightenment work. The exhibits of the museum are of great historical value. These are jewelry, armament items, clothing of military leaders and rank-and-file soldiers, musical instruments, astronomical instruments of Ulugbek and many other cultural values ​​dating back to the Temurids.

Since the first days of its existence, the museum has become the center of scientific thought and enlightenment work. The exhibits of the museum are of great historical value. These are jewelry, armament items, clothing of military leaders and rank-and-file soldiers, musical instruments, astronomical instruments of Ulugbek and many other cultural values ​​dating back to the Temurids.

 In the museum's exposition there are also archeological, ethnographic and numismatic materials, ornaments, objects that have come to the state of Amir Timur through the Great Silk Road. Here you can see for yourself such valuable historical documents as correspondence of Amir Timur and his descendants with European monarchs, skilful miniatures, copies of Amir Timur's paintings, written by European masters of that time. The originals of these paintings are currently in the building of the National Library of France.

The professionally built exposition of the museum conveys the spirit of the Temurids epoch, bears the richest information about the state, public life and culture of the Middle Ages. The exhibits are united on the themes: "Culture and history of writing in Uzbekistan", "Shohrukhia City-fortress", "Our heritage abroad", "Amir Temur-Clavijo-Samarkand", "Episodes from the life of Amir Temur", "Amir Temur and Temurids - through the eyes of artists, "" The era of Amir Temur and Temurids from the point of view of scientists and writers. "

The museum's funds contain over 3 thousand exhibits reflecting the history and culture of Uzbekistan, including the epoch of Amir Temur and Temurids, which is divided into collections of archeology, architectural decoration, archeological metal, stone, glass, ethnography, armaments, manuscripts and miniatures. For example, weapons are presented: chain mail, helmets, maces, axes, various arrowheads and much more.

Among the exhibits for metal can be identified bronze pitcher with epigraphy of the period of Amir Temur. Gold, silver and bronze ware, household items, jewelry, ceramics are another confirmation of the fact that Amir Temur was not only a great statesman, but also the patron of science, handicraft, spirituality and enlightenment. Very valuable are silver and copper coins, in which the emblem of Amir Temur is displayed, as well as the names of representatives of the dynasty of Temurids were minted.

The support fund consists of more than 2000 items. These are books, booklets, various gifts, catalogs, souvenirs, objects from the Gur-Emir mausoleum, models of architectural monuments, namely such as the Bibi-Khanum mosque, Ak-Saray palace, Gur-Emir mausoleum, Ulugbek madrassah and others. A special place in the museum's exposition is occupied by items related to the development of science, culture and the establishment of diplomatic relations. These are medieval manuscripts, photocopies of letters, scientific treatises, publications about Amir Temur and his era, as well as a model of the star globe of Ulugbek.

For 14 years of existence, the museum has become one of the most popular and attractive places to visit people.

In 2006, the museum celebrated its 10th anniversary, in honor of which a new exposition was opened - "10 years to the State Museum of the Temurids' History". According to the administration of the museum, for ten years, there were about thirty exhibitions on various topics, and unique museum exhibits were displayed at international exhibitions held in France, the United States, Germany and Austria. Since its foundation, the museum has been visited by more than 1.5 million people and 400 official delegations.

Every year the exposition of the museum is replenished with new interesting exhibits that testify to the multifaceted personality of Amir Temur and the rich heritage of Temurids, which is of genuine interest to scientists around the world.

 

The Romanovs Palace

In the heart of Tashkent is a unique architectural structure - the palace-residence of the descendant of a noble family, Grand Duke Nikolai Romanovich Romanov. The building was erected in 1891 according to the project of famous architects of that time by VS Heinzelman and A.L. Benois. Nikolai Romanovich Romanov was born in 1850 in St. Petersburg. He was the first-born of the Grand Duke Constantine Nikolayevich, the nephew of the Russian Emperor Alexander II and the grandson of Nicholas I. Nikola (so his relatives called him) became the first Romanov graduate of higher education - he graduated from the Academy of the General Staff with a silver medal, traveled widely in Europe, collected Western European painting . At age 21, he already commanded a squadron of the Life Guards of the Horse Regiment.

Nevertheless, the behavior of Nicholas in the world caused discontent of the monarch's family. In 1873, his father, concerned about his novel with American dancer Fanny Lear, sent his son away from Petersburg - on a campaign of expeditionary forces to Khiva, to lead the vanguard of the Kazalinsky detachment through Kyzyl-kum. The reconnaissance group led by him fell under artillery fire and miraculously returned to the detachment. For participation in the campaign the prince was awarded the Order of St. Vladimir of the 3rd degree.

During his stay in Central Asia, Nikolai Konstantinovich seriously took a great interest in Orientalism and even planned to lead the Amudarya expedition of the Imperial Russian Geographical Society.

In 1874, a family scandal occurred: the young prince was accused of stealing three diamonds from palace, which belonged to his mother. It was assumed that Nikolai sold the stones to buy gifts for his lover. On the family council, it was decided to declare him insane and permanently expel from St. Petersburg, as well as to deprive all ranks, rewards and inheritances. Fanny Lear was also expelled from the Russian Empire and was forbidden to return back. Since then, the lovers have not seen each other. Over the next seven years, Nikolai changed about a dozen places of residence, and in 1881 he was deported to Tashkent.

Here he called himself Colonel Volynsky, and later - Iskander. He had excellent relations with the inhabitants of the city. Nikolai Konstantinovich became a successful entrepreneur: he started a cotton plant, the production of soap, kvass. He participated in the improvement of the city, sponsored the planting of trees, the printing of enlightening books. At his own expense built the first in Tashkent cinema - "Khiva", laid irrigation canals in the Hungry Steppe. Also, the prince again created a collection of works of art, including paintings of various masters, statues of marble, sculpture. In Tashkent, Nicholas Constantine built a palace-residence in the Art Nouveau style: a long two-story building made of burnt brick of gray-yellow color, with carved lattices, graceful windows and other unusual decorative elements. On the flanks of the residence there are towers of a circular shape, merging with the building. In the basement of the palace was equipped with a living room, in which even in the strongest heat the coolness was preserved.

Nikolai Konstantinovich was an avid hunter, so the entrance to the building was decorated with bronze deer on both sides of the staircase, as well as the figures of hunting dogs on marble platform. At the courtyard of the residence there was an open-air zoo, where wild animals were collected.

To the porch adjoined a circular entrance lane, fenced off by a wrought iron grate with a gate. In the courtyard was a flower garden surrounded by a hedge. In the Japanese garden grew dwarf fruit trees, murmured streams, graceful bridges and tiny houses decorated with figures of people and animals. There were also gazebos decorated with palm trees and miniature trees.

Behind the residence was a garden that Jerome Ivanovich Krause, a famous pharmacist and botanist of the time, defeated. Near the entrance was located Joseph-Georgievskaya church, later demolished in 1995.

November 22, 1891, Tashkent. Traveler William Zahtleben in front of the palace of Nikolai Konstantinovich.

In the residence was a large round hall, in which led three carved oak doors. In the middle of the hall, trimmed with dark wood, an unusually shaped lantern descended on a cast-iron chain. One of the doors led to a spiral patterned metal staircase to the second floor, where a library and billiards were located. From the hall it was possible to get into three halls. They were decorated with marble statues, sculptures and paintings from the collection of the prince.

In the first room was a guest room, in which a statue of Venus stood near the French-style window. In the sunlight the figure acquired a charming, transparent-pink hue. In the next room, statuettes, ivory toys, medals, rings, bracelets, silver and gold decorations and much more were displayed in glass cabinets. The third hall in oriental style was decorated with Bukhara, Afghan, Turkmen and Persian carpets. On the walls hung expensive guns and cold steel and picturesque paintings illustrating life in Central Asia. The door from the guest room to the small hall where books, cast-iron figurines, paintings brought by the prince from the campaign to Khiva were collected. As the heir of the Romanov-senior prince Alexander Iskander writes in his memoirs, a mock-up of the fortress of Ichan-Kala was kept in this room.

Prince's apartments were located in the left porch of the residence, and his wife Darya Chasovitinova - in the right. Prince Nikolai Romanovich suddenly died in January 1918 from pneumonia. He was buried in Tashkent, at the fence of the cathedral across the road from the palace. Nikolai Romanov bequeathed his collection of paintings of European and Russian artists as a gift to Tashkent, provided that a museum will be opened in his palace. The Museum of Art was established in Tashkent in 1919. Later it became the Museum of Art of Uzbekistan, whose collection is still considered one of the most significant collections of European painting in Central Asia.

1920-1925, Art Museum.

From the 1940s to the 1970s, the Republican Palace of Pioneers was located in the building of the residence, and until the early 1990s, the Museum of Antiques and Jewelry of Uzbekistan. At the end of the XX century the building was restored

Today, here is the Reception House of Foreign Delegations of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Uzbekistan.

 

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