Shakhrisabz

 

Shakhrisabz

Shakhrisabz is a small but very pretty town ( "green city", persian) Is just 90 kilometers south of Samarkand, at the foot of the Hissar and Zeravshan ranges, where the confluence of the Aksu and Tankhoz. This is one of the oldest cities in the world. According to some sources, human settlements on this site already existed in 1700 BC. e. Here last phalanx of Alexander the Great, was captured by the satrap of Bactria Bess, infancy anti-Arab movement and the caravans of the Silk Road. Ancient Kesh, birthplace of Amir Timur and the former "domestic residence" Timurid, once was probably velichetsvennee and richer of Samarkand.

In the Shakhrisabz are not many historical monuments, but they are unique or have tremendous historical value. The most famous attraction of Shakhrisabz - a palace of Timur's Ak-Saray (White Palace, 1380-1404 gg.), Which was largely destroyed, but recovered rapidly. In addition to the giant 40-meter gate, you can see the magnificent mosaic filigree and unique technology samples of masonry wall, by which to judge what splendor was probably this huge summer residence.

In the city there are interesting buildings and later times. Among them honako Malik Ajdar with a majestic dome, quarter mosque Kazy-Guzar having an interesting summer quince on wooden pillars and other structures. Shakhrisabz monuments of ancient architecture - evidence of the greatness of the people whose creative genius was erected the famous portals, vaults, domes, whose spiritualization inspired skilful craftsmen, decorated the buildings whimsical paintings and intricate ornamentation.

Shakhrisabz - the birthplace of Amir Timur.

The small town of Shakhrisabz ( "green city", pers.) Is just 90 kilometers south of Samarkand, at the foot of the Hissar and Zeravshan ridges at the confluence of the rivers Aksu and Tankhoz. This is one of the oldest cities in the world, according to some sources, human settlements at this place existed as early as 1700 BC. e. There marching phalanx of Alexander the Great, he was captured by the satrap of Bactria Bess, infancy anti-Arab movement and the caravans of the Silk Road. Ancient Kesh, birthplace of Amir Timur and the former "domestic residence" Timurid, once was probably velichetsvennee and richer of Samarkand.

The city survived relatively few monuments of history, but they are unique or have tremendous historical value. The sights include the Palace of Timur in Shahrisabz Ak-Saray (White Palace, 1380-1404 gg.), Which was largely destroyed, but recovered rapidly. In addition to the giant 40-meter gate, you can see the magnificent mosaic filigree and unique technology samples of masonry wall, by which to judge what splendor was probably this huge summer residence. No less interesting is the ensemble of the mausoleum Dorus-Sadat (Dorus Saodat, "seat of power", in the XIV) - crypt Jahangir and Omar (Timur's sons), which by its size and finish is comparable to the Ak-Saray. Places of worship of the town are also ensemble Dorus Tilyavat ( "Blue Mosque", the XIV c) - the mausoleum of the spiritual mentor of Timur Shamsiddin Kulol, elegant mausoleum Gumbazi-Seyidon (XVI century, it houses the descendants of Ulugbek) and a mosque Kok Gumbaz (1435 g) and Hazrat Imam mosque (XIV century) and the cenotaph of Timur (he is buried in Samarkand, and here are the mausoleums of the great conqueror relatives).

In Shahrisabz conducted extensive work on the restoration and restoration of monuments of material culture. It created an independent Scientific Restoration Workshop, which employs architects, designers, builders, skilled woodcarvers and ganch and other masters of applied art. Taking care of the numerous creative team - give the original appearance monuments of medieval architecture, save for the ages creations of ancient masters.

  

Aksaray

Today Shakhrisabz has far outgrown the medieval borders, but, as before, it is buried in the emerald greenery of the gardens, and above them, as if escaping from the depths of the sea, the magnificent creations of architects of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries rise. It is common knowledge that a country, city or village gain popularity and universal acceptance due to some historical landmark, event or other peculiarity, which becomes its original visiting card. Shakhrisabz is primarily associated with the Ak-Saray palace. A lot of amazing legends are associated with the history of the erection of the palace. According to one of them, Temur, conceived to build a majestic building, called for an architect and set out his goal. The architect, after listening to the ruler, asked permission to admit him to the state treasury. After receiving permission, the master in front of Temur began to make blocks for the foundation of clay mixed with gold.

Seeing the imperturbability of the ruler, he broke the blocks and returned the gold to the treasury. To Temur's question: "Why did you do this?" - the architect replied: "To be sure of the firmness of the ruler's intentions to start building a building that requires huge expenses." The second legend says: after the completion of the basic construction works Temur began to rush the masters with the execution of the artistic decoration of the palace. But the latter did not hurry to cover the building

majolica and mosaic. And when the angry ruler ordered the lead architect, it turned out that he disappeared, hanging a chain in the center of the main arch of the palace. Since he could not find an equal master, the building was not completed. And after some time, the architect suddenly appeared and, making sure that the chain on the entrance arch was significantly lowered, proceeded to the decorative decoration of the palace.

To Temur's formidable demand to explain his so strange flight and sudden appearance, the architect replied: "I did not dare disobey the decree of the ruler, but I could not fulfill it, and in either case a severe punishment awaited me, for such a majestic building must settle firmly to settle in the ground, otherwise all the applied ornament would be destroyed. " The great ruler appreciated the wisdom and resourcefulness of the master.

"If you doubt our strength - look at our buildings." Such an inscription adorns the portal of the majestic palace of Ak-Sarai, built by the great commander

Amir Temur in the 14th century. Unfortunately, only part of the entrance portal of the palace has survived to this day, but even the remnants of this portal help to present the unprecedented beauty and grandeur of this building.

Temur built it on a bare field, driving 50,000 captive architects and masters from all corners of his empire: from Khorezm, Iran, Iraq and Northern India. There is a legend that when preparing the first bricks for the royal building added golden sand!

According to the plan of the Bishop, the structure was to be unsurpassed in its grandeur. The scale of construction was truly royal. The Great Sovereign did not regret money. He certainly wanted his buildings to be the largest and best in the sublunary world.

According to descriptions of contemporaries and on materials of archaeological research, scientists recreated the layout and artistic appearance of Temur's palace. Although Ak-Saray is translated from Uzbek as "White Palace", however

in the name of the palace it means "noble, aristocratic". Striking, first of all, the scale of the building. Only the front yard, whose plan was recovered, occupied 250 meters in length and 125 meters in width. And the height of the main portal, crowned with arched teeth, reached 70 meters - the size of a twenty-story building. Corner towers in height were not less than 80 meters, and the entrance arch had a span of more than 22 meters.

In August 1404, the Ak-Sarai Palace was visited by the Ambassador of the Castilian King, Gonzalez de Clavijo. He described it as follows:

"The palace has a very long entrance and very high gates, and here, at the entrance, there were brick arches from the right and left sides, decorated with tiles laid out with different patterns. And under these arches were like small rooms without doors, that is [grooves] with the floor laid out with tiles, and this was done so that people could sit there when the seigneur was in the palace. Immediately behind these gates was large courtyard paved with white slabs and surrounded by richly decorated galleries; and there is a large pond in the middle of the courtyard, and this courtyard occupies three hundred paces in width, and through it entered the largest room of the palace, which was led by a very large and high door, decorated with gold, azure and tiles-all very skillful work. And above the door in the middle was a lion [on the background] of the sun, and on the edges exactly the same images. It was the coat of arms of a lord of Samarqand. "

The palace served for recreation and entertainment, as well as for the administration of state affairs. On the axis of the courtyard was located a dome-covered room for meetings of the sofa - the State Council. It had on both sides small meeting rooms of advisers - Tashadjibek and Devonbek. Among the palace buildings there was also a harem, richly decorated and lavishly trimmed. In front of him was a shady garden with ponds, lined with patterned tiles.

The arch of the entrance portal of Ak-Sarai, which collapsed 200 years ago, was the largest in Central Asia. The span of the portal was 22.5 m. From this majestic structure there were two separated pylons. The height of these pylons, even in the present destroyed state, reaches 38 m. A great deal of work continues on the restoration and strengthening of the pylons of the portal portal. The mosaic of filigree work, gathered in a complex color scheme, amazes with bright intricate ornamentation and paintings. The part of the pylons and the monumental arch, which has survived to this day, amazes with the dimensions - with a height of 18-storey house and a width of about 20 meters.

 Ak-Saray Palace is the largest complex of civil architecture not only in Central Asia. The destruction of the historical building is attributed by the historical tradition to the Bukharian Emir Abdullahan II, who, at the next siege of the defiant Shahrisabz, allegedly ordered to break

magnificent buildings Temur and his descendants. Wishing to erase the memory of his famous predecessor, no matter how hard he tried, he could not destroy the palace to the end. Whatever it was, but already in the second half of the XVIII century. from the once luxurious royal palace only pylons and part of the arch of the main portal have been preserved. The construction of Ak-Saray Palace embodied the idea of ​​Sakhibkiran to transform Shahrisabz into the second capital of the state, and the creation of Dorus-Syodat and Dorut-Tilovat memorial complexes reflected his desire to make his native city the spiritual center of Mavarounnahr.

During the years of independence of Uzbekistan, restoration work was carried out on the surviving parts of the palace. Along with other monuments of Kesh in the Timurid era, the palace is listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

Dorus-Syodat Memorial Complex

 Dorus-Syodat Complex is one of the most romantic and mysterious architectural ensembles in Shakhrisabz.

When the youngest son of Amir Temur - Jahongir suddenly died in Samarkand at the age of 20 years, the king was very upset. He loved his son madly

and prepared him for the heirs of the throne. Jahongir also pleased his father with successes at the training bureau in the madrassah, and also showed courage on the battlefields.

He summoned the best architects from different cities, including Khorezm. His desire was to build a majestic structure in the homeland of his ancestors - in the city of Shakhrisabz. The complex is called Dorus-Syodat. This memorial complex was intended not only for prince Jahongir, later he began to act as a family crypt for part of the Timurid dynasty.

A short time later, a second son, a twenty-nine-year-old Umarshah, was buried there, who fell in battle (1393-1394) during the siege of the Kurt fortress in Iran. His body was transported from the city of Shiraz here, to Shakhrisabz.

Construction lasted from the late 14th to early 15th centuries. At that time, Temur wanted to give Maverannahr the status of the largest empire in the East not only with vast possessions, but also with a rich cultural heritage. Shakhrisabz began to take on the appearance of a spiritual center, the cultural core of this part of the East.

There used to be a large number of bright minds, among them famous scientists and poets: Alisher Navoi, Jami, Mirzo Ulugbek. The latter even lived here for a while, comprehending the wisdom of this city. All this was reflected in the image of Shahrisabz, most of which is its unique architecture. Dorus-Syodat is no exception. The court historian and chronicler Sharafiddin Yaazdi left written data in his work "Zafarname" ("Book of Victories"):

Up to the present day, materials of other ancient authors have also reached, according to which the height of Dorus-Syodat at the highest point - the outer dome - reached 27 meters. The front arch had a powerful portal, through niches of which it was possible to distinguish painted patterns, epigraphic runes, stretching with a long ribbon throughout the building of the front part of the building. The facade of the building was faced with a majolica of different colors, but the main role was played by the blue color and its shades. The remaining colors favorably stand out against its background, creating a beautiful artistic image. Entrance door of massive size was covered with tiles, harmoniously adjacent to the ornaments of gold and azure. The colorfully decorated building evoked delight and admiration from all who were there.

One of the parts of the complex was assigned to a madrassah. At the entrance to the main portal one of the corridors led to his yard. Madrassah Dorus-Syodat initially did not serve for education and education of citizens, it was more like a mosque, where religious activities, religious services and rites of remembrance were performed. By the decree of Temur himself, the time from time here they brought a sacrificial gift in the name of the repose of the souls of Jahongir and Umaršehaj.

Inside the courtyard, along its perimeter were the rooms where the ministers of the madrassa lived, as well as some of the members of the clergy in the manors built here. In the center was a flowering garden with fountains and aivans. Under the cool murmur of fountains in these shady gardens, many sages and priests found themselves. To this day, preserved stone-paved floors, which were niches of aivans and vaults of walls adjacent to the portals.

Behind the Dorus-Saodat complex there is another part of it - the crypt of Amir Temur. According to one version, in 1943 a local boy, chasing a ball, fell into the ground. Thus was discovered the crypt of Tamerlane. Subsequently, archaeological excavations were launched here, during which the scientists restored and restored part of the crypt.

Temur ordered to build a crypt soon after the construction of the complex itself. The crypt was located in the ground, and the entrance to it was carried out through a magnificent land building, made in the same style as the tombs of his sons. Steep staircase descent led to a cross-shaped room, the center of which was a room of a rectangular shape. Everything was done modestly, which did not correspond to the character of the ruler.

Apparently, the construction simply was not completed due to some unknown reason. The walls, floors and vaulted ceilings, forming a small dome, are made of white marble slabs. On the walls, in the hollowed out arches are visible ellipsoidal medallions, inside of which beautiful inscriptions are written with a beautiful calligraphic handwriting. Basically these are excerpts from the Koran, texts of prayers, various sayings. The following quotations can be considered as fundamental: "The Board belongs only to Allah", "Only Allah is eternal", "Good is in the hands of Allah, and only He is all-powerful and mighty." In the middle there is a marble sarcophagus, covered with a thick monolithic plate with a thickness of more than 10 cm.

In the corners, as well as in the center of the plate, there are steel rings intended for its installation. On the plate were inscriptions, consisting of Temur's letters and relating to his life. On this basis, it can be confirmed that this place was intended for burial of the lord. But fate ordered otherwise, this vault was destined to remain empty, for Tamerlane was buried in the capital Samarkand, in the Gur-Emir complex, which in translation means "the tomb of the ruler".

 

Dorut-Tilovat Memorial Complex

"The Contemplation House was formed in 1370-1371 after the death of the outstanding religious figure Shamsiddin Kulal, the founder of Sufism, the spiritual mentor Emir Taragay’s and Temur’s himself, and

teacher of Bakhauddin Naqshbandi. His grave immediately became a place of veneration for his numerous followers.

Near the grave of Sheikh Kulal stood the madrasah Dorus-Tilovat. Remains of Emir Taragaya were moved to one of the rooms of the madrassah. During the reign of Temur, the grave of Kulal was covered with marble slabs.

Later, during the rule of Ulugbek, over the burial site of Shamsiddin Kulal and on the remains of the former and more modest building, a mausoleum with a dome was built. The Kuk-Gumbaz mosque (Blue Dome) was built opposite the mausoleum in 1435. The inscription on the portal indicates that the mosque was built by Ulugbek on behalf of his father Shakhrukh. It is also known as the Friday Cathedral Mosque of Shakhrisabz.

Kok-Gumbaz Mosque

 Among the majestic palaces and memorial complexes of Shakhrisabz, right out of the green gardens stands a blue dome - Kok Gumbaz. Due to its location and size, it is visible from almost any part of the city. This makes Kok - Gumbaz an indispensable element of the city panorama.

, "Kok - Gumbaz" means "Blue Dome". The mosque was built in 1435 on the skeletons of an earlier building located in the Dorut-Tillyavat architectural complex, the front side to the mausoleum of Shamseddin Kulyal.

In fact, Kok-Gumbaz is the largest Friday mosque in Shakhrisabz. It was here that all the most important religious services were held. The initiator of erecting this mosque was Mirzo Ulugbek, a world-famous astronomer, public figure and grandson of the great Amir Temur.

The inscription on the portal of the main entrance of the mosque says that Ulugbek built Kok-Gumbaz on behalf of his father - Shakhrukh.

It is interesting that architects in the planning of the building tried to maximally adjust the height of the mosque in such a way that its axis was at the same level as the mausoleum of Kulyal. This allowed achieving an ideal symmetry between the buildings, which gave the entire complex a very harmonious and verified style. For the sake of this, the masters even had to violate the Islamic law by rejecting the direction of the mosque to the sacred Mecca.

The spherical blue dome is covered with a ceramic tile of sky-blue color, which symbolizes a cloudless sky over the vast possessions of the ruler. From a distance, merging with the sky, it resembles a balloon, creating the illusion of lightness and flight. Below, encircling the base of the dome, stretches a light stripe, crowned with fragments from various suras of the Koran. Derived beautiful calligraphic handwriting, so characteristic of the Temurids era, it includes many wise and well-known sayings. Here is the most colorful and large: "Power and wealth belong to Allah. Only Allah has domination. "

Entering the building, we see that its inner part is square. Immediately in a different way, the swing and dimensions of the dome are felt. Heavy and majestic, he hangs high above the heads. The diameter of the dome is 46 meters. Here, the sounds of voices and actions come to life and, merging, are transformed into a bizarre and simultaneously formidable echo.

At the corners of the massive walls are arranged four spiral staircases, which lead to the upper level, to the rooms and the roof.

The surface of the walls inside the mosque is covered with white ganch (a mixture of gypsum and clay). In some places there are the finest painted ornaments and patterns, made in blue-blue tones. Near the walls are niches, oriented to the sides of the world.

Ancient Chorsu Market

 Trade centers were built in such a shopping center as Shakhrisabz, but until now only one of them has survived: the Chorsu indoor market, built in 1602.

Chorsu bazaar’s construction erected at the intersection of the main market highways.

It is located in the center of the city at the crossroads of an ancient street that originated from the southern city gate of Charymbar, called Termez Gates at Temur, and the highway that crossed Shakhrisabz from east to west. Here there was a bazaar and a bath, which is still functioning today. A more suitable place for the construction of a covered market can not be found.

With external resemblance to the medieval trading domes of Bukhara and Samarkand, Shorisabz's covered Chorsu market is distinguished by its original layout. The market is a centric building with a diameter of 21 meters. Four portals with entrance arched openings, oriented to the sides of the world, lead inside, into the central hall.

This is a fairly large square room with bevelled corners. From it passages lead to eight angular small halls. The central hall is covered by a spherical dome on arched sails, and small corner rooms - small dome.

The builders did not decorate the covered market with mosaics or majolica. However, the excellent brickwork of the thyroid sails in the herringbone, in addition to the functional purpose, also carries an aesthetic load.

In each of the Chorsu premises, a certain type of goods was being traded: ceramic ware, hand embroideries, which today are famous for the skilled workers of Kashkadarya, imported and local fabrics, carpets and other products.

Below, encircling the base of the dome stretches a light stripe, crowned with fragments from various suras of the Koran.

Chubin Madrasah

In the northern part of the city, opposite the towers of the Ak-Sarai portal, the Chubin Madrasah has been preserved. It was built of burnt bricks at the end of the 17th century and traditionally included the building of a mosque (khanaka), classes (darskhona) and khudzhry for students.

The mosque and darshona are covered with large domes, hujras are small. In the interiors, a decorative ganch finish is used. Madrasah was restored in 1994 - 1996.

Here now is the museum of the history of Shakhrisabz. A unique exhibit of the museum is the Zoroastrian ossuary, found in the vicinity of Shakhrisyabz.

It contains an image of a ritual scene with the participation of a Zoroastrian priest.

Hammam

City bath is one of the oldest architectural monuments of the city. Built in the XV century, it still functions. The hammam is heated by a whole network of canals, laid under its floor. The building is made of burnt brick and covered with ring domes. Floors and sufas are marble.

Hanako Malik-Ajdar

In the city there are interesting buildings and later time. Among them, Hanako Malik-Ajdar with a majestic dome, the quarter mosque of Kazi-Guzar, which has an interesting summer aivan on wooden columns and other structures. Shakhrisabz monuments of ancient architecture - a testament to the greatness of the people, whose creative genius was built famous portals, arches, domes, whose inspiration inspired the most skillful masters who decorated the buildings with bizarre painting and intricate ornamentation.

Among them, Hanako Malik-Ajdar with a majestic dome, the quarter mosque of Kazi-Guzar, which has an interesting summer aivan on wooden columns and other structures. Shakhrisabz monuments of ancient architecture - a testament to the greatness of the people, whose creative genius was built famous portals, arches, domes, whose inspiration inspired the most skillful masters who decorated the buildings with bizarre painting and intricate ornamentation.

 

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