Khiva - the most ancient city in the world, one of the legends based Shem - the son of biblical Noah. The heyday of Khiva falls on the XVI-XVIII century. When Khiva became the capital of the powerful Khanate of Khiva. The final appearance of the city was formed in the late XVIII - early XIX centuries. The old part Ichan-Kala - it is an open air museum, is under the protection of UNESCO. At sufficiently small territory of Ichan-Kala are two of the palace, more than 60 madrassas and mosques, mausoleums, a cathedral mosque, the market, caravanserais and baths, houses. Ichan Kala is surrounded by powerful high ramparts. Administrative and religious buildings are lined with colored tiles with incredible beauty on the patterns. Khiva is distinguished by its masters in wood carving. The columns, gates, windows decorated with sophisticated carvings. Khiva is famous for its woolen carpets and jewelery.
Khiva - open-air museum
City-reserve Khiva lies in the heart of the Karakum desert, on the left bank of the Amu Darya River, 450 km from Bukhara. Legend has it that it was founded by Shem (Shem), the son of Noah. Once Horasmis later Hvarezm and Khorezm is one of the main centers of the Silk Road, in the XVI century was the capital of the Timurid dynasty, served as a major slave market and the center of the Khanate in the next three centuries, to the entry of the Russian Empire. Describe the city of useless words, it must be seen.
Everyone who visits Khorezm, striking beauty of Khiva - city-museum. There is a legend that Khiva was founded at a time when Shem, son of Noah, found the wealth here. His people called this place Hivak, from which was formed the name of Khiva.
In 1997, the city under the auspices of UNESCO celebrated its 2500th anniversary. The appearance of modern forms of Khiva mainly architecture Khiva Khanate period end XVIII- XX centuries. But here the ongoing archaeological excavations show that the basis of a number of relatively "young" remnants of ancient buildings are layers related to III, and even earlier centuries BC
In Khiva survived over a hundred monuments of different eras and nations, so in 1967 Old Khiva, and in 1990 - Ichan-Kala, was made a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Hiva includes Ichan kala (inner part) and Dishan Kala (outer part). To this day, towering walls and four gates. The most famous monuments in Khiva are "Tash Hovli, Friday Mosque, minaret unfinished" Kalta Minor Minaret of Islam Khodja mausoleum Pahlawan Mahmud et al.
The oldest part of the city, founded as it is considered in the V century BC. e., it lies within the ancient city walls in the complex Ichan-Kala ( "old town"). The first walls in this place was built in the V-IV century. BC. e., in our days the walled inner city includes 60 historic structures. Here you can see the unique historical monuments such as the Citadel complex Kunya Ark (1686-1888 gg.), The eastern gate Palvan-Darwaza (1804-1806 gg.), The southern gate of Tash-Darwaza (XIX century), the northern gate Bagcha Darwaza (XIX century), the main gate - Ata-Darwaza (. 1842-1975 gg), the palace complex Tash Hawley (. Tosh-Hovli Palace Alla Kuli Khan, 1830-1838 gg), completely covered with glazed tiles minaret Kalta- Minor (. Kaltar, 1835-1955 biennium) and the minaret of the same name (X century, rebuilt in the XIII century), the famous mosque Juma (1788-1789 gg.), with its 218 carved pillars, a symbol of Khiva - minaret of Islam-Hodge (1910, height 56 m) minaret Palvan-Kari (XVIII century), a mosque and a minaret Murad-Tura (1888), the mosque and the House Anusha Khan (1657 g), the mosque Ak (1832-1842 gg.), Baglandy (1809 ), Hassan Mourad Kushbegi (1802), Sheikh Mukhtar-Ata (1810-1838 gg.) and Yar Muhammad Devon (XVIII century), as well as the bastion Akshi Bobo (XVII century) and shopping mall Palvan-Kari (1905) .
By the religious buildings of Ichan-Kala ( "the average city") can be attributed Pakhlavan Mahmud Mausoleum (XIV-XVI centuries.), Payando (XVI century), Syed Alauddin (1303 g), Tugon Tour (XIX century), Uch-Ovliya- Bobo (XVI-XX centuries.) and Yunus Khan (1558-1559 gg.), madrassas Arab-Muhammad-Khan (1616-1834 gg.), Hodzhamberdybiya (1688-1834 gg.), Shirgaziz Khan (1718-1720 gg.), Shergazi Khan (1718-1726 gg.), Muhammad Amin Inaki (1785), Abdullah Khan (1855-1865 gg.), Qutlugh Murad INAC (1804-1812 gg.), Hodge Marama ( 1839), Musa Tour (1841), the palace and madrassas Muhammad Rahimkhan (1846-1855 gg.), Muhammad Amin Khan (1851-1871 gg.), Amir Tour (1870), Matniyaz Devan-Begi (1871 g), Muhammad Rahim Khan (1871), Yakubbay-Hodge (1873), Dost Alam (1882), Mazar-i-Sharif (1882), Atazhanbay (1884), Kazi-Kalyan (1905) Matpanabay (1905), Matrasulbay Mirzaboshi (1905), Abdurasulbay (1906), Yusuf Yasulbashi (1906), mosque and madrasah Said Bai (XIX-XX centuries.), Tolib-Maksum (1910), Matniyaz- Divanbegi and Kazikalon and caravanserai and madrasa Alla Kuli Khan (1834-1835 gg.) and adjoined to him the same name Tim (covered Bazaar, 1836-1838 gg.). The outer part of Khiva called Dishan-Kala, and is a residential and shopping area of the ancient city is also surrounded by ancient walls. Noteworthy himself rabad Dishan-Kala, his northern gate of Kosh-Darvaza (XX century), the west gate of the Ata-Darwaza, the restored gates Gandimyan-Darwaza (1842-1970 gg.), The gate Khazarasp-Darwaza (XIX century), the arch Tozabog ( 1910) and the palace of Keeble-Tozabog (1897), the Palace of Nurullah-Bai (1910-1918 gg.), a mosque and a madrassa Syed Niaz Shalikar Bai, mausoleums Abdal-Bobo (IIX-XVIII centuries.), Shakalandar Bobo ( XVI century) and Saeed Mohammed Mahir (XIX century), as well as madrassas Muhammad Saeed Khan (1864), Tourte-Shaffaz (1885), Bikanzhan-Bika (1894), Mamat-Maram (1903), Palvan- Kari (1905) and Horezmshah (1915). Also interesting are the mausoleum of Mahmoud Pahlavi, caravanserai Allah Kuli Khan (XIX century), the mausoleum of Said Alauddin (XIV century), home of the famous Khiva photographer Khudaibergen Devanova (1908), House Matvafo Karvanboshi (1910) and many other unique buildings .
In the vicinity of Khiva is to see the mosque and madrasa Atajan Tour (1893-1899 gg.), Ibrahim Khoja madrassah (1888), minarets Shahimardan (XVIII century) and Shihmavlon (XIX century), as well as the mausoleums of Bibi-Hajar (1846) Sheikh Mavlon Bobo (XIX century) and Shahimardan (XVIII century).
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