Fergana Valley

 

Fergana Valley

The Ferghana Valley is located in the east of Uzbekistan and southern Kyrgyzstan, and is surrounded by mountain ranges: Chatkal in the north, Kurama in the north-west, in the east of Fergana, Alai and Turkestan in the south. Through the valley flows the Syr Darya, the second largest river in Central Asia with a lot of tributaries. It is known that even 5-6 thousand years ago, there has been developed agriculture. They grow pomegranate trees, vineyards, ginger, walnut and cotton, which have become known in China only to the II. BC. In the Ferghana valley passed the main commercial transit from China to Europe - the Great Silk Road. The Fergana Valley was known for its "heavenly horses", as they were called by the Chinese. Scientists have proved that these horses were the progenitors of the famous Akhal-Teke and Arabian horses. The Chinese chronicles II in BC It mentions that in the territory of Davan (Ferghana Valley) was more than 70 cities, the largest of which had an area of over 40 hectares. In IX-X centuries Ahsiket, the capital of Fergana was one of the largest shopping centers, which were minted their coins, and made a first-class steel.
Today Fergana Valley - the most densely populated and the most fertile territory of Uzbekistan. Here grow the best cotton, melons, apples and Namangan known far beyond Uzbekistan. The Ferghana valley has preserved the tradition of the old artisans: potters, blacksmiths, goldsmiths. Fergana - the largest producer of natural silk fabrics.

Fergana Valley for its rich and picturesque called the pearl of Central Asia. The valley is surrounded by mountains of Tien Shan and Gissar-Alai, and only in the west opens gates Syrdarya river.

The Fergana Valley has always played a significant role in the history and culture of Central Asia. Thus, reports of Fergana state Davan was contained in the ancient Chinese chronicles from the end of II century BC. e., in the Middle Ages it was one of the leading principalities Mavara. The fact that in ancient times the valley was the center of various civilizations resemble the remains of Bronze Age settlements, the early Iron Age and medieval monuments.

One of the oldest cities in Central Asia - Margilan. Marghilan in 2006 will be celebrated for 2000 years. In the XI century Margilan was the largest city of Fergana oasis famous for its silk fabrics, which are along the Silk Road merchants exported to Egypt and Greece, Baghdad, Khorasan and Kashgar. And today you can call Margilan the silk capital of Uzbekistan. It produces the famous "khan-atlas", woven and dyed by hand on an old technology.

In fifty kilometers from Fergana Rishton is a small town. Since IX century BC. e. rishtantsy famous for its pottery. Over 1,100 years from generation to generation passed secrets to master the production of ceramic products from local varieties of red clay and glaze from natural mineral dyes and ashes of mountain plants. Big dishes "lagans" deep bowl "shokosa", water jugs, vessels for milk, decorated with ornaments of glaze "Ishkor" unforgettable turquoise and ultramarine colors, brought Rishtan masters famous at many international exhibitions, decorate expositions of many world museums and private collections .

The main city of the Ferghana Valley has long remained Kokand. In XVIII-XIX centuries it was the capital of the powerful Kokand Khanate, to extend its grip on most of the current territory of Uzbekistan and neighboring countries. Kokand was the major religious center. During the heyday of the city there were thirty five madrasahs and one hundred mosques. Unfortunately, most of them destroyed by the time, earthquakes and Soviet power.

In the ring of Ferghana city occupies a special place Namangan, homeland of the famous Uzbek poet Mashraba. Not far from Namangan are the ruins of the ancient city Aksikent. Archaeological research has shown that the city had citadel and strong fortress walls. It was developed by trade and handicraft production. From X to XIII century Aksikent was the capital of the Fergana Valley. But then the city was destroyed by the Mongols, and in the seventeenth century - the strongest earthquake. In 1875 Namangan became part of Russia. At the same time it was built on a regular plan of the new city. It was separated from the old city fortress, from which, according to established procedure, a fan disperse radial streets. In the early twentieth century Namangan was the second most populous city and a center of cotton processing in Fergana Valley. At the same time built religious buildings - the Mausoleum of Khoja Amin, madrassa of Mullah Kyrgyz, and others, have survived to the present day.

Not far from Namangan is the town of Andijan, homeland Zakhiriddin Babur, poet, author of the famous epic "Babur-name", commander, statesman who conquered India and founded the Mughal Empire. By age Andijan - one of the oldest cities in the Ferghana Valley. Thirty kilometers from the modern city located Markhamat settlement - the capital of the ancient state Davan - "Ershi", famous for swift-footed horses. Hence such horses as the greatest treasure, supplied to the court of the Chinese emperors. In the ninth-tenth centuries Andijan became the possession of Samanids. In the fifteenth century ruler of Andizhan was Babur Temurid. In 1902 Andijan suffered greatly from the earthquake, the city was virtually rebuilt. Among the monuments of previous centuries preserved Jami madrassah.

Today Andijan - one of the largest industrial centers of Uzbekistan. Here built Uzbek-Korean joint venture for the production of passenger cars, have machine-building factory, cotton factory, knitting factory. The city is surrounded with fruit gardens, cotton and wheat fields.

One of the oldest cities in the Ferghana Valley is the town of Kuva. On the mound old Kue found the remains of the III century BC, the city buildings. e. On the territory of the settlement studied by archaeologists and excavated Buddhist temple VI - VIII centuries. n. e. Ferghana Valley - a large blossoming oasis with the most fertile land in Central Asia and wonderful climate - is rightly called the Golden Valley.

  

Khudoyar Khan Palace-Urda  

Kokand Urda - the citadel, better known as the Khudoyar Khan's palace, was the seventh khan's palace, built under Khudoyar Khan, who ruled the Kokand Khanate from 1845 to 1875. The palace is included in the list of world historical heritage and is a monument of history and culture of the Republic of Uzbekistan. Currently, the Kokand Local History Museum is located here, which acquaints visitors with the history of the region and the palace.

Construction of the palace was started even before the birth of Khudoyar Khan. In 1822, when Khan Khokand died, Umar Khan, his minor son Muhammad Alikhan, better known as Madalikhan, ascended the throne. His mother Nadira was a famous Uzbek poet and patroness of science and art. She began to manage part of the state affairs on behalf of the heir to the throne. With her, the palace was erected. However, for unknown reasons, construction was soon suspended. It resumed in 1863, under the rule of Khudoyar Khan. After 4 years, in 1871 the palace and all the buildings in the complex were completed.

The construction of the palace complex under Khudoyar Khan was led by the architect Ubaidullo Muhandis. The finest craftsmen from different cities of the Fergana Valley and Kashgar took part in the finishing works, and the ceramic tiles for decoration of the facade were made by craftsmen from Rishtan - the ancient center of ceramics.

In 1876 the troops of the Russian Imperial Army entered Kokand and captured the palace. The Kokand Khanate fell, and the Russian garrison was quartered in the palace. In the throne room there is an Orthodox church, the men's and women's parochial schools were opened. After the October Revolution, in the 1920s, the government of Koshchi settled here - the mass organization of the working peasantry. In 1924, the agricultural exhibition of the Fergana region was opened in the palace, and a year later in 1925 on the basis of this exhibition it was decided to open the Kokand Local History Museum. During the Second World War, a military hospital was located here.

At the entrance to the main portal, at the top of it you can see a beautifully decorated carved inscription in Arabic: "Great Said Muhammad Khudoyar Khan". It is in harmony with the pattern on the elaborately designed doors of an impressive size. To the right of the arrow to the sky rises a faceted minaret, which was lined with ceramic tiles. At the base and at the center of the minaret, magnificent ring-shaped patterns of majolica were made. In its original form, the length of the palace was 138 meters, width - 65 meters. The palace consisted of 7 palaces and 119 rooms. Many of the rooms were decorated with openwork carving in ganch and wood, ornamental painting with temperaments and gilt cornices molded from alabaster. The most elegant were the throne room and the reception room, the Treasury, the treasury and the arsenal were also located here. There was a special hall where the Khan was making a trial of his subjects. In addition, there were private rooms of Khodyar Khan and his wives in the palace. Richly decorated rooms were also reserved for his children. In one of the courtyards was a harem. Small rooms were inhabited by numerous captive slaves, who served the palace.

Perfectly decorated wall and ceiling panels were full of colors and ornamental subjects, a lot of costs from the Koran, sayings of famous philosophers and wise rulers.

Especially distinguished were the throne room, the courtyard and private quarters of the khan and his wives: rich in color and shape, painted drawings on the walls, gilt cornices and carved pictographic motifs of the eastern theme on wooden arches.

At that time the palace complex was surrounded by internal and external fences. To date, the fences have not been preserved, there are only two courtyards and 19 rooms left. The building of the facade has 70 meters and has the appearance of motley colors and rich ornaments: geometric patterns, arabesques, plant motifs. In the decor of the palace Khudoyar Khan you can see carvings on ganch, painting, excerpts from the Koran along the edges of blue ceramic tiles. In the eastern part of the palace there is a large mosque measuring 100 m by 30 m, which once belonged to a madrasah.

Dakmai of Shakhon

A small khan's burial vault Dakhma-i-Shahon (1825) is one of the main historical sights of Kokand. Here was buried Umarkhan - the most humane and peace-loving ruler of Kokand, who aspired to prosperity.

Umarkhan led a righteous, religious way of life, helped the needy, rebuilt madrassas and mosques, built bazaars and residential quarters. In addition, he was engaged in art and literature. Examples of his work can be seen on the entrance doors of the tomb along with excerpts from the Koran.

The well-preserved necropolis consists of several parts: a mosque with aivan for services and prayer, a dome with a portal and a family tomb.

The most notable burial is the grave of Umarkhan himself. Above it is installed a marble sagana of magnificent execution. The facade, like the inner vaults of the rooms, is decorated with decorative patterns. In style and artistic content, they are very similar to the murals of the Bolo Hauz mosque in Bukhara.

During the existence of the memorial complex around it, numerous mazars (places of burial of local townspeople) were formed, which grew into an independent cemetery.

In 1971, the tomb was carefully and carefully restored by local craftsmen.

 

Modari-khan mausoleum 

Mausoleum is associated with the name of the famous Uzbek poetess Nadira. Wife and mother of the Kokand khans, she and after the death of her husband continued to play a prominent role in court life. Her poems have entered the golden treasury of Uzbek poetry, and the buildings built at her command are still the sights of Kokand.When several years after the death of Nadira's husband, the ruler of Kokand Umarkhan, his mother died, the poetess, as befits a pious sister-in-law, venerated her mother-in-law, ordered to build a mausoleum over her grave. And soon Modari Khan became the tomb of all women of the khan's clan.

Initially, the tomb of Modari Khan, which means "Mother of Khan", was a Khazir - a traditional type of Fergana memorial architecture. The architectural complex included a dome portal construction, a memorial mosque and a courtyard enclosed by a fence, in which there was a burial. However, over the past two centuries only a magnificent entrance pavilion has survived from the remarkable ensemble.

A small portal with a low dome, a delicate vegetable ornament on majolica framed by the front doors make all the buildings exquisitely elegant and proportionate. The arched niche above the main entrance is filled with a cascade of stalactites from a snow-white ganch. Two faceted towers, closing the facade, cause direct associations with the Samarkand mosque Bibi-khanim, as if hinting that both buildings were dedicated to great women. On the right, on one of the hexagonal plates, the architect left under the icing date of the construction of the mausoleum - 1241 AH, that is, 1825. According to the legend, in the construction and decoration of the mausoleum of Modari Khan, ceramists-kulolas from Rishtan and local masters of ganch carving took part. The most remarkable thing about the decoration of the tomb is the unusual decoration of the inner surface of the dome. It has a ribbed spiral of ganch. But the spiral is one of the most archaic elements of the ornament, known from pre-Islamic times.

In the XVIII-XIX centuries, when Kokand became the center of a large and powerful state, many large beautiful mosques were built in the city. From written sources it is known that in the capital of the Kokand Khanate there were 230 quarter and 18 Friday mosques.

Jami Mosque   

 Mosque the most grandiose in the city - was completed in 1818. However, the history of its erection began in the 18th century, when the construction of Jami madrasah for 100 hujras was started at the behest of Kokand ruler Alim Khan, and with this magnificent cathedral mosque. According to the legend among the local inhabitants, the logs for the pillars supporting the overlapping of its aivan were sent by the famous poetess Zebinisso, who was Babur's great-granddaughter and lived in India. However, after the killing by the conspirators, Alim Khanastroitelstvo had to be interrupted, and the bricks were used to restore the old Kokand Urda. And only in 1817, at the direction of Umar Khan, the construction of the mosque began again.

As they say, before the laying of the first brick, which according to tradition was supposed to be made by the most righteous and God-fearing person, Umar Khan addressed the congregation three times with the question: "Is there a man among you who has not committed a single sin in your life?" In response, he was silent, then, having considered himself the most sinless, he himself laid the first stone in the walls of the mosque. After that Umar Khan became known under the nickname "Zhannat makon", that is "worthy of paradise, the favorite of the gods".

The main cathedral mosque of Kokand is a khanaku - a winter premise surrounded on three sides by aivan. The aivan convoy is supported by ninety-eight columns of a solid variety of karagacha, which is called a "stone tree". Ten of the same columns are inside the hanaka. All of them are covered with fine carvings, In 1852, during the rule of Khudoyar Khan, a minaret of burnt bricks, almost twenty-two meters in height, was built near the Jami Mosque. It has the shape of a truncated cone with a hexagonal lantern at the top. Inside the trunk there is a spiral staircase, along which five times a day ascanqui was raised to summon the faithful to prayer. Five years after the construction of the minaret, Khudoyar Khan invited the best masters and artists to restore the cathedral mosque. For this purpose, he ordered the use of a two-year income from waqf - lands intended for the maintenance of a mosque and a madrasah.

Already after the annexation of the Kokand Khanate to Russia, in 1905 the Jamie Mosque, which had decayed by then, was repaired. The local wealthy merchant Mir Habib-by allocated funds for this charitable cause. Stone masons were invited from Armenia, other masters gathered from all corners of the Fergana Valley. Among them were not very experienced, so that the magnificent paintings were painted with an inept hand.

Under the Soviet regime, the madrasah was dismantled into bricks, the Jami mosque is closed, and the main facade is bricked. Only in 1982 the mosque was thoroughly restored. Replaced rotten bases of wooden columns and, most importantly, restored in its original form of a unique ornamental painting of ayvan and interior. Today the mosque is returned to the believers and, as an old man, the townspeople rush here on Fridays for prayer.

Narbuta-biy Madrasah

Narbut-biy was the patron of science and the arts. At this time, active construction was conducted in Kokand. In 1798, the construction of the Narbut-biya madrasah was completed in Kokand. In the era of Norbutabia, several madrasahs were built: In 1762 - Sulaimonia Madrasah, in 1789 - Eshon Honhuzha, in 1794 - Imam Bakir, in 1795 - Tura Hakim, in 1798 - Madrasai Mir, among These buildings are medrese named after Norbutabia. It has survived to the present day and is also known as Madrasa-i Mir.

In the era of Norbutabia, famous people of culture lived and worked in Kokand. Of these, Muhammad Ghazi, Nadir, Khuzhmnazar Huvaido, Khozha Maslahatuddin Umtavali, and his son Khozha Muhammad Nosiruddin ... Norbut-bi throughout his life worshiped Khoja Muhammad Nosiruddin and Khoja Muhammad Yakub Okhund and was their murid. His sons: Muhammad Amin, Muhammad Olim and Muhammad Umarhan also gave Muhammad Nosiruddin to the upbringing.

Emir Madrassah

In the city of Kokand there is the Emir Madrassah. Madrassah was built in the 18th century. It was performed in the classical strict style of that time and today, it is included in all historical tours around Uzbekistan and historical excursions around Kokand.

The facade of the building was decorated with an ornament made of geometric figures with majolica from a variety of colors and with floral ornaments. The length of the facade was 30 meters, and its width was 21 meters. In the inner part of the madrassah there is a small courtyard (16 by 18 meters). Throughout the length of the square building in the courtyard were built hujras. It was decided that in one part of the Emir Madrassah there were student rooms and study rooms, and in the second part there was a mosque. Madrasah, together with the student premises and the mosque, were under a blue large dome. Both the mosque and the training rooms are crowned with blue domes. It is true that in the Soviet times the madrasah was closed, but for today it is in force. It is open to all believers and of course to tourists who are interested in historical monuments of Kokand.

 

Said Ahmad-Khodja Madrasah

Architectural composition of madrasah is quite traditional for the architecture of the Ferghana Valley - a deaf facade, separated by an entrance to a square courtyard surrounded by perimeter hujras. A number of arched arches, dismembered by pylons, create a certain rhythm and lead to the north-western corner of the courtyard where an asymmetric mosque with aivan was erected from burnt bricks. Old plane trees with sprawling crowns and a wide aryk flowing through the courtyard create a shadow and coolness on hot days.

 It is curious that while constructing the ceiling of the mosque, local masters demonstrated a clear acquaintance with the methods of European architecture. If the traditional coffered ceiling of the aivan is supported by four carved columns set in two rows, then a fairly large one, seven meters wide, the prayer hall of the mosque is covered with wooden trusses, on which a suspended ceiling is mounted. This technique, which is not typical for the eastern architecture, allowed us to dispense with the interior of the mosque at the Said Ahmad-Khodja madrasah without vertical supports and, as it were, expand its internal space.

 This mosque is one of the few in the Ferghana Valley, where the ceiling of the aivan and the main hall is entirely covered with ornamentation. On the beams of the overlapping aivan and small wooden plaques of vassas laid across them, a small floral pattern is applied. The ceiling of the hall is dissected by wide longitudinal red and green stripes, on which a small floral ornament is distinguished, surrounded by intricate twisted shoots.

 The walls of the interiors are divided into rectangular panels, framed by graceful frames with carved geometric patterns from ganch, a prayer niche of mihrabs is highlighted. The walls are finished with a traditional two-tone relief frieze in the technique of kyrm, in which the white elements of the pattern stand out on an ultramarine background.

 In our time in the madrassah of Said Ahmad-hodji young Margilans study the Koran and Hadith, and the mosque opened its doors to all believers.

 

Jami Complex

 The complex Jami in Andijan is one of the main architectural sights of the Ferghana Valley. In the middle of the XIX century. the status of the city was assigned to the settlements that had a mosque. Each settlement sought to surpass the other in the grandeur of its mosque. The consequence of this was the construction of the Jami Mosque, the largest in the Ferghana Valley. Nearby there were built a madrasah and a minaret, which together with the mosque formed the complex Jami.

The architectural ensemble surprises with its dimensions: the area of ​​the Jami complex is 1.5 hectares. On the territory of the complex is the Museum of Literature and Art of Andijan region.

Madrasah length of 123 m, according to Islamic canons, is facing eastward, towards Mecca. The central entrance of the madrasah is represented by a traditional arched portal with a turnout. On the sides of the entrance of the building, small turrets with decorative lanterns rush upward. On the walls of the structure are carved patterns of mosaics of blue and blue colors, traditional for the buildings of the Fergana Valley. In the corners of the madrassah there are study rooms, covered with domes, and between them in two floors there are living rooms - hujras. Initially, the madrasah had a U-shape, but the "wings" of the building could not resist the earthquake of 1902, so that only the main facade has survived to this day. The main element of the interior design of the Jamie madrasas are wooden grilles with a geometric pattern inserted into window openings and fireplaces.

The mosque of the Jami complex as well as the madrasah is striking for its scale - located in the western part of the architectural ensemble, the mosque has 26 arched spans along the main facade of the building. The building is surrounded on three sides by aivan. The columns supporting the ceiling and overlapping of the aivan are patterned, and the ceiling itself is decorated with amazing painted drawings. The Jami Mosque is the active Friday mosque of Andijan.

The 32-meter-high minaret is the tallest building in the entire Ferghana Valley and is a brick structure erected on an octagonal base. To the top of the minaret, where the domed lantern with several lancet apertures is located, leads a spiral staircase. In the middle and almost at the very top the minaret is decorated with a belt with ornamental patterns.

Before the ensemble there is an artificial pond, around which are scattered ornamental and fruit trees. The doors of the Jami complex are always open to believers and guests.

                                            

Mullo-Kirghiz Madrasah

Madrasah was built in the center of the city at the beginning of the 20th century under the guidance of the talented architect Usto Kirghiz.

Among the local population there are many legends about the talent of the architect who built the madrasah. One of them says that one day the great man made tea and from afar observed the work of the pupil who built the wall. Seeing the error, he corrected his assistant, but he could not understand how to put the brick. Then the master from his place threw a brick and he took the right position, although the Usto was at a considerable distance.

The building of the madrasah is an irregular pentahedron surrounded by hujras, which was due to the relief of the land. The mosque and darshona covered by domes are built together, which somewhat violates the symmetry of the main facade, which is also decorated with a portal-dome entrance. In the depth of the structure is visible a small minaret. The architecture of the main facade is emphasized by a lancet arcade, which emphasizes a clear rhythm of hujra. The mosaic of blue, green, white and yellow colors is widely used in the decor of the portal.

In 2011, the reconstruction of the historical monument of madrasah "Mulla-Kirghiz" began, at present the work is under way to restore the pristine appearance of the building.

 

Ota Valihon Tura Mosque 

The mosque was built in the early 20th century. The area of ​​the building is 27x20 meters. The composition of the mosque appears symmetrical, a small entrance portal with turrets protrudes beyond the general building. The central hall with a dome with a diameter of 14 meters is surrounded on three sides by aivans. The dome through the arches rests on round brick pillars, built at the corners of the octagon, inscribed in the dome square. The outer brickwork is prefixed with ornamentation, and the spacious hall is encircled by ribbon walls with blue mosaic. Cylinder - the drum under the dome contains inscriptions in the Arabic ligature. Entrance gates are decorated with a deep carved pattern of stars with curly vegetal ornamentation. The building is monumental and expressive, like a divine citadel for the pure in spirit and thoughts.

Khoja Amin Mausoleum

Mavlon-Buva complex and some other monuments belong to the same type of buildings. Memorial mosque portal-dome type symmetrical building, open to 4 sides. The burial is highlighted by a monumental tombstone rectangular shape, it is located slightly north. Ziarathon (a place of worship) is also rectangular in plan, measuring 9x12.5 m. It is made of burnt bricks. The drum has a stellar configuration. The architectural complex includes: a mosque, a madrasah and a Khonako (a Muslim religious building.

Masters have managed to preserve for long centuries folk artistic traditions. In the decoration of the main facade of the building, carved terracotta is used - a kind of unglazed ceramics made of clay of different colors, having a porous, matte surface. This type of decoration reproduces the technique of decorative decoration of buildings XII-XIV centuries. The portal has in its design a pointed arch, framed by a U-shaped belt, which combines narrow and wide ribbons with vegetative and geometric patterns. In geometric interlacing, 5-petalled rosettes with large-sized flowers are distinguished. The columns are faced with tiles. Conical capitals of orange-red color decorate a relief pattern. At the corners of the portal there are cylindrical towers.

Broad tapes are decorated with carved terracotta. Narrow tapes are adorned with a skillful two-layer ganch thread (special material, close to gypsum). Traditions of such jewelry exist in Central Asia for a very long time. Initially, the design was attended by white carved ornaments, the background for which was the lower layer of red. But the bright colors were able to withstand the test of time, and the layers now look monochrome, practically not differing in tone. Noteworthy is the rich interior decoration. The rest of the walls of the building do not have such decorative design, and retained the brickwork.

 

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