Bukhara

 

Bukhara

Bukhara - one of the oldest cities in the East, located in the Kyzylkum desert oasis. Even in Chinese chronicles the III. BC. Bukhara is mentioned as a big and developed city. According to legend, the founder of the city was a legendary hero of "Avesta" and "Shahnameh" - Siyavush. In the IX century Bukhara became the center of the powerful Samanid state. Here lived and worked the historian and poet Ferdowsi, Rudaki wrote poems. Bukhartsev believe his countryman and Hodja Nasreddin - the national favorite and famous in the whole East sage and wit. In the XVI century Bukhara became the center of a powerful Emirate. Medieval Bukhara was not only a major political and cultural, but also a significant religious center of the Middle East. Therefore, in Bukhara, like in any other city of Central Asia, the most complete, clearly presented and varied mosques, minarets and mausoleums. The modern Bukhara - Uzbekistan is a regional center with a population - more than 200 thousand people.

Anyone who has ever been in Bukhara, probably, paid attention to the strange "shaggy hats" on top of minarets. This stork nests. And the white bird of hope can serve as a symbol of the city, its durability and permanence. Rich city has repeatedly been attacked enemies, especially devastating was the invasion of the Mongols. But each time Bukhara revived again, and at the same place, keeping true to its fundamentals.

A Bukhara foundation is lost in the mists of time. In 1997, by the decision of UNESCO's entire cultural world celebrated its 2500 anniversary. Legend links the emergence of the city with the name of one of the deities of the Zoroastrian pantheon - Siyavush. The most ancient part of Bukhara is its citadel - Ark, where archaeologists excavated the finds dating back to IV - III century BC. This is a large artificial mound twenty meters high, where the palace of the Emir, his harem, treasury, arsenal, casemates for dangerous criminals.

One of the oldest monuments of Bukhara is the mausoleum of Ismail Samani, built at the beginning of the tenth century, the founder of the Samanid dynasty. The mausoleum is a brick cube covered with hemispherical dome. The tomb of Samanids the first in the Central Asian construction of buildings made of burnt bricks, and bricks and used as a constructive, and as a decorative element. Main vertical city - Kalyan minaret, built in 1127. This is the perfect engineering construction, colossus, rising above Bukhara on 47 meters. Belts, slightly tapering upward round tower of the highest minaret in Uzbekistan, are faced with different glazed bricks. However, the variety and rhythm of ornamental motifs enrich a simple and clear architectural form.

A feature of the medieval architecture of Bukhara was the creation of ensembles of two monumental buildings, separated by a street or a square and facing each other. According to this principle, the central ensemble of the city was founded - the area of Poi-Kalyan - "Foot of the great." Arched passage minaret is connected to Friday's grand Masjid Kalyan. Opposite her at the beginning of the sixteenth century, built madrasah Miri-Arab, functioning in our time. By the twelfth century, and attributed the occurrence of Chashma-Ayub mazar. According to tradition, the biblical prophet Job - Ayub passed through this waterless part of Bukhara, hit a stick - and there appeared a source with pure healing water.

In the fourteenth century Khorezm masters brought from the campaign Amir Temur, erected over the well with a source of the building, giving a conical dome on a high drum typical of Khorezm form. A mosque Chor-Minor, compared to them, we can say new - nineteenth century. The building has four squat minarets and domes covered with blue glaze, which creates a unique silhouette of the mosque. To the East is characterized by the use of artificial reservoirs-House not only for practical purposes, but also for the decoration of the city. In Bukhara there were more than eighty of landscaped ponds. The most famous of these is the Labi Hauz.

Large metropolitan city, Bukhara was known not only for its mosques and madrasas, mausoleums and Mazar, and palaces, rich houses, caravanserais, baths and mnogokupolnymi shopping malls. In the town are preserved and are still used as a shopping arcade, erected at intersections of streets, Toki Zargaron ( "Jewelers Dome"), Telpak-Furushon ( "Dome of sellers of headdresses") and Toki-Sarrafon ( "Dome of me"). Their original destination speak the name.

In the Middle Ages Bukhara was a holy city for all Muslims in Central Asia, and this feeling was expressed not only religious, but also of aesthetic piety. Bukhara was considered the abode of glory, it was the meeting place of prominent people. The author of the second most important after the Islamic book Koran - a collection of the most authentic Hadith "Al-Jami al-sahih" was Imam Al-Bukhari. Abu Ali ibn Sina (Avicenna) was born in the suburban village and began its activities in Bukhara. Blessed in the Islamic world, Sheikh Bahauddin Naqshbandi, the founder of the Sufi Order, was chaser in Bukhara. Adoration of the holy tomb of Sheikh was equated to the Hajj to Mecca. Mausoleum of Bahauddin Naqshbandi is revered as the main shrine of the city.

Bukhara gave the world the historian Narshakhi, poets Rudaki and Dakiki: But here is gossip, and put the national favorite, wit and "troublemakers" Hodja Nasreddin. History and the sayings of the wise man is not the evil number. The centuries-old activity of Muslim scholars, thinkers, architects, poets, has earned the city the honorary titles of "Domes of faith", "Noble Bukhara", "Blessed town". It seems that Bukhara really deserves all these epithets. At the same time, the city is a modern industrial and cultural city. In it there is a modern airport, universities, colleges, high schools, theaters, sports facilities and wellness centers.

   

Samanid Mausoleum 

Mausoleum located in the historical center of Bukhara, in a park,  in place of an ancient cemetery. The mausoleum was built in the IX century (between 892 and 943). Discovered and restored in the XX century. It is one of the architectural masterpieces of Central Asia and the pearl of world architecture.

There are three burials in the mausoleum, one of which belongs to Ahmad ibn Isma'il, the son of Ismail Samani. The graves of Ismail himself, the builder of the mausoleum and the founder of the Samanid dynasty, may not be in the mausoleum. Until the 20th century, the mausoleum was almost entirely covered by a cultural layer.

This monument marks the beginning of a new era in the development of Central Asian architecture, reborn after the Arab conquest. It is obvious that the ancient Sogdian traditions continued to develop on ancient lands, but in a new quality: the technique of construction of burnt bricks, its constructive and artistic capabilities, the means of architectural expressiveness are merit of a new time, although they also carry the familiar "sign system" originating from pre-Islamic culture.

Having a very small size and height, the mausoleum makes an exceptionally strong impression on the viewer. Undoubtedly, this is a work of the architect-genius.

The tremendous effect of building perception is achieved between those extremely simple ways, without significant costs for any decorative finishing materials, such as colored tiles, which are simply not there. The classical form, impeccable proportions and openwork ligatures of decorative brickwork have created a masterpiece by the hand of the master, admired by the peoples of different countries and cultures for several centuries. This mausoleum proves the truth that true art is timeless and understandable and close to any person, regardless of its social origin, education and national culture.

Paying due respect to the architect, on whose idea the mausoleum was erected, we should never forget that the strength and durability of the building we owe to the art of unknown master builders.

 Chashmai-Ayub Mausoleum

Mausoleym includes a mausoleum and a sacred spring. Currently, it houses the Water and Irrigation Museum. The mausoleum was built by order of the Karakhanid rulers in the 12th century. He repeatedly rebuilt during the XIV-XVI centuries. Under Timur the mausoleum was finally completed. The structure is formed by four rooms located on the East-West axis, each room crowned with a dome. The westernmost building was built first as a funerary tower, other volumes were added later. 

The legend about the prophet Job is associated with this mausoleum. There was a time in Bukhara, when the desert winds dominated the city, and the inhabitants suffered from a drought. They prayed to Allah to send them a miracle and save them from drought. And the Almighty heeded their pleas. At this time, the Prophet Job was traveling through Bukhara. He struck his staff on the ground and a healing source appeared, which saved the Bukharians from certain death. Grateful residents named the source of Chashma Ayub - the spring of Saint Job.

 

Bolo-Khauz Complex

Complex located in Registan Square, which consists of a mosque, a minaret and a house, was built in 1712, also known as the Forty Column Mosque. Until 1917, Bolo-House was built as a mosque of the Emir, but later it became a common Friday mosque, where still the faithful at noon prayers. According to legend, the mosque was built in honor of the mother of the Bukharian ruler of Abu Fayud Khan, another version says that it was originally built by the emir of Shah-Murad, as a general mosque.

The mosque was built in the style of the XIX-XX centuries. At the beginning of the XXth century, an open aivan was added to the mosque, which is a real work of Uzbek national decorative art. Wooden columns, installed in two rows, are the backbone for aivan. The magnificent painting, decorating loggias with arched overlapping and a ceiling of aivan strikes with its beauty. In 1917, in front of the mosque, near the pool, was built a small minaret, whose walls are decorated with patterned brickwork, the hallmark of this mosque is its miniature and proportionality. Bolo-House is divided into winter and summer mosques. The Winter Mosque is a four-chamber hall with several entrances. The summer mosque is aivan, which surrounds the winter hall of the mosque on three sides.

Despite the fact that the Bolo-Mosque Mosque was built relatively later than other architectural monuments, it can rightly be considered one of the most beautiful and magnificent sights in Bukhara.

Ark

Bukhara Ark is an ancient citadel in Bukhara the stronghold of the last emirs. At one time the Ark, towering over Registan Square, was a symbol of greatness, power and inaccessibility. On one of the walls of the Ark there was once a large leather whip (Kamcha) - a symbol of power in the Bukhara Emirate.

At the beginning of the XX century in the Ark lived about three thousand people. In the fortress were located: the palace of the rulers, the palace services of bureaucratic aristocracy and military leaders, craft workshops, treasury, arsenal, dwellings of relatives and dignitaries of the courtyard, warehouses of clothes, carpets, weapons and palace treasures.

Fortress Ark is the oldest architectural and archaeological monument of Bukhara. Arch is a large earthen fortification in the northwestern part of modern Bukhara. In terms of it, it looks like an irregular rectangle, slightly stretched from west to east. The perimeter of the outer walls of the Arch is 789.60 m, the inner area is 3.96 hectares. The height of the Registan square rises from 16 to 20 meters.

All the remaining buildings belong to the periods of the rule of the Uzbek dynasties of Ashtarkhanids (XVII century) and Mangyt (XVIII-XX centuries). The main entrance to the citadel is architecturally framed by two towers. At the top of the tower are connected by a gallery with a well-preserved room and terraces for the city guard. The ascent to the main gate is a ramp that leads through an indoor long corridor to the cathedral mosque of Jome. Along the corridor there are rooms for water (obhana), sand (reghan) and a chamber (kanakhana) for prisoners.

In the western part there is preserved: the throne room - "khunishish-khona" (XVII century), the cathedral mosque Jome (XVIII century), the courtyard of the prime minister of the emir "kushbegi-bolo" (XIX-XX century), the court of greetings "salom khona "(XIX-XX century.), And the stable yard" sais-khona "(XIX-XX century.).

In the southern part preserved: the mosque Honako (XIX century.) And the remains of the bath of the emir (XIX century.).

In the northern part - Honako Battol-Gozi (XVIII century.) And the mosque "Childukhtaron" (40 girls), built in the XVIII century. in memory of the forty girls who died on the orders of Emir Nasrullah.

The eastern part was not preserved, it was destroyed in 1920 by Sovits in bambardment, now it is an archaeological reserve.

Poi Kalon Ensemble

Ensemble located at the foot of Kalyan Minaret. The complex consists of three buildings built in the XII - XVI centuries: Kalyan Minaret, Kalyan Mosque and Miri Arab Madrassah. Poi Kalyan is on the main square of Registan and is the central architectural ensemble of Bukhara. The museum's depository is located in the main rooms. The cathedral mosque with the minaret was in Bukhara from the moment of the conquest of Transoxania by the Arabs in VIII, there was a mosque at the foot of the city citadel. In the XII century, Arslan Khan conceives a grandiose reconstruction of the city: he dismantles the city palace, recreates the citadel, which turned to this time in ruins and carries the city mosque. A new mosque is being built about a hundred and fifty meters southeast of the citadel, and with it a minaret is built. The minaret was "beautifully made," according to Narshahi's testimony, but it was made unstable: once the construction is completed, the minaret falls on the mosque and two-thirds destroy it. In 1121, a new mosque is being completed, and in 1127 a minaret that has survived to this day.

On the site of the Arslan Khan mosque in the 15th century, the present Kalyan mosque is being erected, its finishing is completed in 1514, this is inscribed on the facade of the building. The ensemble takes a modern look in 1536, when Ubaidullah Khan is building a madrasah on the advice of Miri Arab Yemeni confidant. After Miri Arab's death, his tomb is erected in the courtyard of a madrasah named after him, Ubaidullah himself is resting here. The mosque and the madrassah are on the same line with the facades of one another, forming a kosh(mirror).

Kalon Minaret is the oldest building in the square, it was built in 1127 by Arslan Khan and for almost 900 years has never been repaired. The minaret is one of the tallest buildings in Bukhara, its height is 46.5 meters with a lower diameter of 9 meters, the very construction of a conical shape with a lamp at the top. The minaret is richly decorated - the cylindrical body is lined with stripes of flat and relief masonry, revealing the roundness of the structure in any illumination. The dome of the lantern is not preserved.

The Kalyan Mosque (the Masjidi kalon - "The Great Mosque")  built under Ubaidullah Khan on the site of the destroyed Karahanid mosque, the construction was completed in 1514, the second largest mosque in Central Asia after the Bibi Mosque Khanum in Samarkand. It is made in the traditions of Timurid architecture and is decorated with mosaic.

Miri Arab Madrassah was built by Ubaidullah Khan for Sheikh Abdullah Yemeni in 1535-1536. The building is large enough - it contains 111 hujras and two cruciform halls: the first hall was used as a mosque and a lecture hall, the second was the burial vault of Ubaidullah Khan, Abdullah of Yemen and others.

To find funds for the construction of the Miri Arab madrasah, Ubaidullah Khan sold 3000 captured Persians slaves and gave the money to Abdullah of Yameni.

 

Lyabi-Khauz Ensemble

One of the central squares of the city of Bukhara, an architectural ensemble created in the XVI - XVII centuries. The square is formed by the buildings of the Kukeldash Madrassah, the Nadir Devon-Begi Madrassah and the Nadir Devon-Begi Khanaka, around the Nadir-Begi khauz- reservoir is rectangular shape measuring 46 by 36 meters and a depth of up to five meters. The walls of the khauz are formed by stone steps.

In the Middle Ages, Lyabi-Khauz was a lively commercial area, this was facilitated by the proximity to the main shopping street with its trading domes and the extreme crowding of buildings in Bukhara, so Lyabi-Khauz was simply one of the few open spaces. The Lyabi-khauz ensemble is located in the south-eastern part of the Shakhristan of Bukhara, near the central shopping street of Bukhara, on the site close to the Lyabi-khauz there are Tok-i Telpak Furushon and Nugai caravan-saray. The area is an irregular polygon, in the eastern part of which is the madrassah Devon-Begi, in front of it, on the western side - the khanaka of Devon-Begi, so they form a kosh. On the central axis of the kosh from the west is Bola-Khauz, and to the east - a monument to Khoja Nasreddin. The entire north-eastern part is occupied by the impressive Kukeldash Madrassah

Kukeldash Madrassah

In the northern part of the square there is the Kukeldash Madrassah. This is the oldest building on the square, it was built in 1568-1569 by Kulbaba Kukeltash-the official Abdulla Khan II. Madrassah is a rectangular structure measuring 86 by 69 meters and includes a mosque, darshana (lecture room) and 160 cells-hujra. The planning of the madrasah is unsuccessful - due to the lack of internal portals of the hujra in the courtyard, the building gives the impression of tightness.

Hanaka Devon-Begi

Khanaka was built simultaneously with the house in 1619-20 by Nadir Devon-begi, uncle and vizier of Imamkuli Khan. Khanaka is small in size, cross-shaped, with a central domed hall, around which are two hajras. On the edges of the main facade are the turrets, the façade itself is decorated with a mosaic, on the sides it is lined. The side facades are decorated with arched entrances and systems of smaller arches.

Devon-Begi Madrasah

Madrasa Divan-Begi is located in the eastern part of the Lyabi-hauz, on the same axis as the khanaka and khauz. The madrassah was built in 1622-23 by the vizier of Imamkuli Khan Nadir, as a caravanserai, but later it was converted into a madrassah. It differs from the layout, which is completely unlike the typical layout of the madrassah - there is no mosque and lecture hall. The facade of the building is decorated with a mosaic panel.

Trading domes of Bukhara

Bukhara is known to the world not only for its mosques, the fortress Ark and the majestic Kalyan minaret, but also the trading domes that stretch from Lyabi-Khauz to the Miri-Arab Madrassah. Long ago, in the 16th century under the Sheibanid dynasty, Bukhara became the capital city, and the city's unprecedented growth began, and as it was on the Great Silk Road, bazaars and shopping bazaars even more caught the crossroads of large roads. Centuries have passed, and now only four trading domes have survived.

Toki-Sarrofon very close to the Lyabi-Khauz dominates the dome, under which there is a crossroads. Around him are scattered shopping benches. Once there was located one of the largest currency exchanges in Central Asia: merchants from India, China, and other countries changed money from money, which they called sarrafon. Hence the name of the trading dome. But after centuries you can only buy carpets, scarves and other souvenirs.

Telpak Furushon is a massive complex with a hexagonal orientation. Under the spherical dome are concentrated benches, in which knives, jewelry, musical instruments and various souvenirs are sold. Nearby is the medieval smithy, where you can see how to make knives and other tools. Once here books were sold, and the trading dome was called Kitab-Furushon "book sellers". But gradually the place of books was occupied by benches in which hats were sold, later the trade in hats gave way to souvenirs of local artisans.

Toki-Zargaron is the largest trading dome of Bukhara. It is the most northern, and is very close to the complex of Poi Kalon. The Toki-Zargaron dome differs in that it is extended upwards and has reinforcing ribs. The name Zargaron is associated with the word "zargar", which can be translated as "jeweler". Once there were 36 jewelry shops, shops selling a variety of jewelry. In addition, Toki-Zargaron was the very first of the trading domes of Bukhara. Today, you can buy jewelry, scarves, and various accessories for the house: Bukhara door handles, bells, lucky horseshoes and much more.

Tim Abdullakhan trading dome is very different from its counterparts. He is not at the crossroads, but along the street; is a closed room, which is always cool. Light in Tim Abdullakhan comes from small windows and holes in the domes. For centuries, carpets and fabrics were traded here, and today you can buy a motley carpet, a beautiful patterned handkerchief or a piece of Bukhara fabric.

Chor-Minor Madrassah 

Madrasah Khalifa Niyazkul  "Four minarets" was built by khalifa Khudoyd in 1807 in Bukhara. The entrance to the madrassah resembles the buildings with four towers, similar to minarets, hence the name Chor-Minor.

The building is located on the open area behind Lyabi-Khauz. The construction of Chor-Minor is very unusual, so sometimes Chor-Minor is considered only as a gate to a lost madrassah. However, if you look closely, you can see that Chor-Minor, even in its present state, is a self-contained complex consisting of buildings that have at least two purposes - ritual and residential. The main building with towers is a mosque. Despite its unusual exterior design, the mosque has a fairly ordinary interior. Here, ritual ceremonies were often held, which included recitation, singing and instrumental music. Also, living rooms were added to the side walls of the central building. Thus, for the functioning of the madrassah, only the classroom is not enough - "darskhona" and some business premises, such as the dining room - "oshkhona." But in Bukhara there were no so-called classrooms, and even if they were, there still were no classes. Such madrassas were used as student dormitories. Each of the four minarets has a different shape and design.

In some elements, one can see something resembling a cross, Christian fish and Buddhist prayer wheels. There is an opinion that the decoration in this way reflects the religious and philosophical comprehension of the four world religions.

 

Magoki-Attori Mosque

In the heart of the reserved part of Bukhara is the Magoki-Attori mosque (IX century) - one of the first mosques in the city, which dates back to the pre-Islamic era. On the territory where the mosque Magoki-Attori is currently located - "Mosque in the pit", in the beginning of our era there was a temple of fire.Near by there was bazaar at this bazaar, spices and medicine were traded, and on the Navruz holiday images of Zoroastrian fertility deities were sold here. When Islam was established in the region, a mosque was built in the ruined pagan temple of fire worshipers. During the archaeological excavations of the 20th century, a group of scientists discovered that the first mosque was erected here in the 9th century. The overlapping of the mosque rested on four bearing layers, the walls of the walls and the remains of the carved decor of the 10th century ganch were preserved. The fire of the end of the 10th century was destroyed by a mosque, and in 12th century a new construction was built on a similar plan, which collapsed in the 15th century, but it also preserved a magnificent southern portal with a unique monochrome decor.

Initially Magoki-Attori was a mosque with six pillars and an overlap of 12 domes. The main entrance lay on the long side of the structure and was noticeably offset from the central axis. It stood out by the portal and was designated by an arch, which rested on two carved stone columns. The main decorative material was carved polished brick, from which were drawn patterns in the form of curls, spirals and meanders. The decor of the mosque skillfully combined bricks, a mosaic of terracotta ornaments. On the vertical panels of a small size on the diagonal are laid Arabic inscriptions and relief ghirih (a kind of geometric ornament). The originality of the form and the play of shadows on the patterns laid out of bricks, the ornamental luxury of the southern facade of the mosque speak of the highest craftsmanship of Bukhara artisans of the 12th century.

Judging by the inscriptions on the new eastern portal, the revival of the mosque in the sacred territory dates back to the 16th century. To date, the Magoki-Attori portals, decorated with alabaster carvings, majolica irrigation, masonry made of ground bricks and carved terracotta, are masterpieces of architectural decor.

Abdulazizkhan Madrassah

Madrassah named after Ashtarkhanid ruler Abdulazizhan is a pair ensemble with madrassah of Ulugbek. The entrance is distinguished by its high and rich exterior ornamentation, for the first time yellow paint was used. When decorating madrassah, a wide variety of techniques were used: carved tiles and carved mosaics, relief majolica, carved marble, alabaster frescoes, gilding. Madrassah is considered the pinnacle of the achievements of the Middle Asiatic architecture, contrary to the traditions of purely ornamental decor, the walls are painted with images of flowers, trees, landscapes and even images of dragons and birds Simurg.

 

Synagogue

 Synagogue in the Makhally Kukhma quarter, which has 300 years of history, was closed by the Soviet authorities in 1940. And only in 1945, at the request of the population, the Jewish community was returned to the former synagogue building, which functions until today.

Sitorai-Mokhi-Khosa

Palace is a suburban residence of the Bukhara emir, built at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century. Currently, it houses a museum of arts and crafts. The palace is divided into old and new. The palace of Sitorai Mohi Khosa is the summer residence of the last Bukhara emir - Mir Sayyid Alimkhan, built in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, located 4 kilometers north of Bukhara. Currently in the palace there is a museum of decorative and applied art, which was opened in 1927. The palace is included in the UNESCO World Heritage List.

The first buildings of the palace (until our days are not preserved) appeared during the reign of Emir Seyid-Abdul-Ahad-Khan in the second half of the XIX century.

The new complex is built in the European style, but is divided into male and female part, inside is finished in the eastern style. He was raised during the reign of the last emir of Bukhara, Mir Sayyid Alimkhan (1912-1918).

The famous masters of his time, Khasanjon Umarov, Abdullo Gafurov, Rakhim Khaetov, Ibrahim Hafizov, Karim Samadov, Usto Zhura, Usto Khodjakul, Shirin Muradov, including two Russian engineers Margulis and Sakovich, who served in the Emir's court, participated in the construction of the palace.

Currently, the palace houses a museum of arts and crafts. The museum was opened in 1927 and consisted of 3 sections: "The Life of the Last Emirs", "Urban Handicraft", "The History of the Bukhara Revolution". The first Uzbek museum expert Musadzhan Saidjanov (1893-1937, arrested as an "enemy of the people" and shot) took an active part in the creation of the museum.

In 1933, Sitorai Mohi Khosa became a branch of the Bukhara Museum, was given the status of an inter-regional museum of local lore. The exposition is newly furnished and expanded. Demonstration of the exhibition continued until 1947. Since 1948 the exposition has been called "Folk Art and Art of Bukhara". And included sections: "Bukhara's monumental art", "Applied art", "Folk musical creativity", "The art of calligraphy and miniatures" and "Cultural ties of Bukhara with neighboring fraternal states".

In 1954, the departmental recreation center of the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions was opened in the palace, the museum was reduced to 9 main halls from the entire palace complex. The exhibition was named "The Museum of Folk Art".

Currently, the Palace Complex houses the Museum of Decorative and Applied Arts.

 

Sufi Bakhouddin Naqshband Mausoleum

The memorial complex of Khoja Bakhouddin Naqshbandi, located 12 km from Bukhara, is the most important Muslim shrine. This is one of the most important religious places of Bukhara, which pilgrims from different countries visit to ask for the fulfillment of desires and aversions of sins. It is called also the Central Asian Mecca, and three walking tours from Bukhara to the necropolis are equaled to one hajj.

Khoja Bakhouddin Naqshbandi was a famous Sufi philosopher of the East, became the founder of the order, later named in his honor - the Sufi order of Naqshbandiya. Also Bahouddin Naqshbandi was the spiritual instructor of Amir Temur and performed hajj to Mecca 2 times. His philosophy has become life-affirming for many figures of the East, and today his teaching remains relevant, attracting a huge number of pilgrims of all ages from various places every year. He urged people to be modest, rejected luxury. The basic principle of his philosophy is characterized by the well-known phrase: "Dil ba yeru dast ba kor" - "Heart with God, and hands in work," and the order symbol represents a heart with the inscribed word "Allah".

Bakhauddin Naqshbandi died in 1389 and was buried near Bukhara, in the place Kasri Orifon, which was famous for its pagan customs and holidays. At the place of the tomb was once a pagan temple of fire worshipers.

In 1544, Khan Abdualaziz built a crypt and surrounding buildings over his grave. In the XVIII century. the mother of the ruler of Abulfaz-khan ordered to build a mosque with two aivans (terraces) at his own expense, in 1720 a minaret was built, and in the 19th century the vizier of Nasrullah Khan Khakim Kushbegi added one more mosque to the complex.Inside the walls of the mausoleum lies a fallen ancient mulberry, which, according to legend, grew out of the staff of Bakhauddin. It is believed that if you crawl under it, the desire will come true.

In 1993, in honor of the 675th anniversary of Bakhauddin Naqshband, the shrine was restored.

In 2003, a lot of work was done on the improvement of the complex: a Darvazakhan (entrance) with a high dome was constructed, richly decorated aivans - terraces were recreated. The vast garden combined into a single composition the sacred burial of Hazrat Bakhauddin and the burial place of his mother. Dakhmai Shokhon (Necropolis of the rulers) was restored, where the remains of some rulers from the dynasties of the Timurids, Sheybanids, Ashtarkhanids and Mangits are buried.

At the complex there is a museum where the true information about Sufis and Sufism in general is stored: Sufi clothing, books, boilers, in which food was prepared, and many other exhibits.

 

Chor-Bakr Necropolis

Necropolis is located in the south-west of the city of Bukhara, in the village of Sumitan. "Chor-Bakr" means "Four Brothers". Necropolis is a large architectural complex, listed in the UNESCO catalog. There are burials of sheikhs from the clan of the Djuibar Seyids. The burial of Abu Bakr Sayid is the most ancient part of the necropolis. Abu Bakr Sayid itself is considered to be the ancestor of the head of the Djuibar sheikhs, that is, the founder of the Djuibar seyid dynasty.

Despite the fact that it is called "The City of the Dead", in the necropolis of Chor-Bakr there are yards, streets, gates, family dachmas and tombstones. In the heart of the necropolis are three main buildings - a mosque, a khanaka and a madrasah. Front facades are portals with arched vaults, and its side facades, located in two tiers, are made in the form of loggias. A complex of structures is located around the mausoleum, which is well preserved to the present day. Great importance to the buildings attached to the minaret. In the brick fences of the courtyards are built entrance portals - Darwaza and aivans of the memorial mosques. To the group of funeral family courtyards - the Khazir leads a narrow path that has grown into the thickness of the medieval cemetery.

The huge ensemble "Chor-Bakr", with its unique architecture, which was built over three centuries, is considered a holy and revered place for pilgrims

Modari-khan Madrassah

During the reign of Sheibanid Abdullah Khan II (1557-1597) in Bukhara, the architectural ensemble of Kosh Madrassah from two opposing madrassas was erected. The first - Madrassah Modari Khan was built around 1567 in honor of Abdullah Khan's mother, the second one bears the name of Abdullah Khan himself and was built in 1588-1590.

"Kosh" means "mirror", "pair"; buildings stand opposite each other on different sides of a narrow street.

Modari Khan Madrasah was built in honor of Abdulla Khan's mother II, from where the name originated, which in the translation from Farsi means "Mother of Khan".

The building is located at some angle to the road, so there is no exact symmetry in the ensemble. According to the composition, this is a "typical" educational institution with a dormitory for students and teachers around the courtyard, public halls of the mosque and darshana (lecture rooms) in the entrance of the building, on either side of the portal. The main façade of Modari-han madrasah is decorated with tiles of multi-colored brick mosaic that form various geometric patterns. The decoration of the facade is filled with tympani from painted majolica tiles, depicting buds of flowers. The entire artistic decoration of the madrassah looks very modest.

Abdulla-khan Madrasah 

Madrassah of Abdullah Khan, built in 1588-1590, is one of the outstanding works of Central Asian architecture. The basic principle of planning remained unchanged - the premises are located around the courtyard. However, the construction is much more complicated: the main entrance has a high portal, which is adjoined by wings with two-story loggias and a passage gallery on the upper floor. The large size of the facade and the variety of decorative tools give the building a colorful, festive look. In bright sunlight, the cold tones of majolica tiles (blue, greenish-blue, white) play well. With great skill, the doors of the madrassah, assembled from separate pieces of wood with the finest carving, without a single nail, are made.

Madrassah of Abdullah Khan is one of the largest in Bukhara after Kukeldash and Mir Arab.

 

Buyan-Kulikhan Mausoleum 

Mausoleum was built in 1358 for the body of Genghis Khan Buyan-Kuli, the ruler of the Chagatai ulus. The mausoleum of Buyan-Kuli-khan is next to the mausoleum of Sayf ad-Din Boharzi. The mausoleum is a small rectangular building located in the Faisakhan district of the city of Bukhara. The facade is decorated with a portal made flush with the surface of the walls. The portal niche opens into the first hall, a square in the plan room with sides 6 to 6 meters, above this hall a dome on sails is erected. Behind this hall there is a small room, in which is the tomb of Khan Buyan-Kuli. In the thickness of the walls on either side of the corridors are laid, passing in the upper part of the walls into covered galleries and leading to the roof.

The mausoleum is lined on the outside and inside. Basically, carved terracotta is used, covered with turquoise facing, diversified with white, purple and blue tiles. The best veneer is preserved in the central hall, where it covers not only the dome, but also the walls. Such decoding is typical for the architecture of Maverannahr in the 70's and 80's. XIV century.

Baland Mosque

The Baland mosque in translation means "high". Its name is due to the position on a high stone foundation. This is a typical example of quarterly mosques.

Cubic volume with a flat suspended ceiling and aivan on wooden carved columns (XIX century). The dominance of the plane is compensated here by the classically found proportions of the parts: the panel, above it the alternating large and small panels, then the frieze. The panel of the mosque is a series of rectangular frames, each of which fills a mosaic pattern.

The middle part of the wall is adorned with a lancet-shaped panel, filled with a flower rink, then with a narrow field for inscription above the frame, then with a figured niche above the pit - they alternate with each other and vary in shape and pattern. The ceiling is wooden, complex carpentry, with a stalactite indentation in the middle of the star-shaped figure. Hexagonal tile panels - with a fundamental painting of gold.

In the Baland mosque the means of the picturesque decoration of the walls are designed with exceptional brilliance. In the region it was believed that this mosque is worthy of imitation.

Khanaka Khoji Zainuddin

Khanaka Khoja Zaynuddin served as a khanaqa, and a gusar mosque, and a mazar of Sheikh Zaynuddin. The builders of the mosque took into account the peculiarities of its location in the residential quarter. Here in the XIX century was laid out with stone slabs of houses, which supplied residents of the quarter and parishioners with drinking water. The southern facade of the building contains the deepest niche - the genus of an open portico, as if absorbing parishioners and enthralling them through shady passages in the semi-marble.

The sheikh's grave rises in a special niche of the western facade facing the street, which is unusual for the burial of the "saint." From the side of the courtyard of the khanaka, it is surrounded by two facades by aivan with columns with stalactite capitals and marble bases. Slender graceful columns, partially replaced in the XIX century, support a set of wooden ceiling of the XVI century.

The main dome room is rectangular, extensive, tall rich polychrome decoration decorates the hall from the bottom to the top of the dome. The figure (now reddish and blue, formerly gilded or on a gold background) conveys only to a small extent that exceptional effect that was achieved thanks to the kundal technique. Excellent and mosaic panel of the mosque, dissected into individual rectangular fields filled with geometric figures, as well as graceful arches with abundant color patterns. Architecture is traditional and goes back to the oldest examples of folk architecture of the feudal era. In the courtyard in front of the aivan there is a swimming pool with stone ledges and a carved stone outflow. Since the XIX century khanaka performs the role of a quarterly mosque.

 

Namazgokh Bukhara

 Mosque intended for worship services on the Kurban-bayram and Ramadan-bayram holidays is in of Bukhara. The word "namazgokh" refers to the place where prayer can be performed, as decently as it is performed in a consecrated mosque. Namazgokh can be a room or simply a prayer rug that is used by a Muslim to provide a clean place for prayer. Namazgokh is given a place to perform prayer, to a huge gathering of people coming from all over the region, and even to armies on the march. It is believed that in this place namazgokh was built in the 9th  century during the reign of the Samanids. 

Since Namazgokh is currently in the city, it has lost its original meaning. Now the role of namazogh in Bukhara region is performed by country ritual complexes. After the Islamic conquest, the festive prayers in Bukhara took place in the Registan, but in the 9th century the square became crowded and mud was built outside the city, about three kilometers from the city center. There it was before the XII century, when Arslan Khan ordered that city residents do not move away from Bukhara as this weakens the city's defense capability. As a result, the garden of Shamsabad was bought and in 1119-1120 in its place was built namazgokh in the form of a wall of burnt bricks with a length of approximately 38 meters. In the wall there was a mihrab (mihrab - niche, orienting the worshipers face to Mecca) with muffled arches on the sides. Namzgokh was slightly rebuilt in the 13th and 15th centuries. In the XVII century. The mosque acquired the composition of a monumental aivan: the frontal body of a three-span gallery with a portal-dome volume in the center. The remains of the original wall were built into the western wall of the building. Then, instead of the old wooden minbar (in Islam "minbar" - the pulpit with which the sermon is proclaimed - "khutba"), a brick was built. In the 16th century the wall was faced with glazed terracotta.   

Gaukushon

Gaukushon is in the distant past a large trading area of ​​Bukhara, earlier, on the site of which the slaughterhouse was located. Later, Khoja-Gaukushon is one of the largest ensembles in the city center. Built in the XVI century. The complex includes a large madrassah and a cathedral mosque with a tall and wide minaret in diameter, which can only be rivaled by the Kalyan minaret of the 12th century.

Madrassah "Khoja Kalon" was built in 1570 by the means of the Djuibar sheikh Khoja Sad, nicknamed "Khoja Kalon" (great Khodja), which was reflected in the name of the mosque, and the whole complex as a whole. The madrassah has an unusual trapezoid shape, this is because it was built at a fork in the road, and it had to logically fit into the urban landscape, which, however, did not affect the scheme of courtyard buildings. To the north of the madrassah, in 1598 a cathedral mosque (Masjid-i-Jami), called "Khoja Mosque", and then a minaret was built.

 

Fayzulla Khodzhaev

Fayzulla Khodjaev was born in 1896 in Bukhara, in the family of a merchant. (1896-1938) is a Soviet party and statesman. In 1913 he joined the Jadid movement. In 1916-1920, Faizulla Khodzhaev was one of the leaders of the Young Bukharian party, who advocated the overthrow of the emir. Khodjaev headed the government of the Bukhara People's Soviet Republic as Chairman of the Council of People's Nazeers (September 1920 - December 1924), until its entry into the Uzbek SSR. On February 17, 1925, by the resolution of the First Constituent Congress of Soviets of the Uzbek SSR, was approved by the Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the Uzbek SSR and a member of the Presidium of the Central Executive Committee of the Uzbek SSR. The house-museum of Fayzulla Khodjaev, located in the old part of Bukhara - a vivid example of architecture of the XIX century. The house was built by Fayzulla's father, Ubaidulla Khodjaev, a merchant who traded with Russia, Germany and other countries. The total area of ​​the house is three hectares. It consists of the male half and the female half. Balconies and living rooms in the house are decorated with magnificent examples of carving and painting. As in other rich houses, the buildings are located around three yards: sai-khanah or permanent, tashkari - for guests, and ichkari - for the family.

The house-museum has the following exhibitions: an ethnographic exhibition showing the rich merchant life of the XIX-XX centuries, an exhibition devoted to the life of Faizulla Khodjaev, and an exhibition "Kitchen in the house of a rich merchant".

Of particular interest are exhibits such as 19th-century dishes made at the Russian factories of Gardner and Kuznetsov, oriental musical instruments of the 19th century, silk and velvet clothes of Bukharans of the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

 

Archangel Michael Church 

 The functioning Orthodox church of the Tashkent and Uzbekistan diocese of the Central Asian metropolitan district of the Russian Orthodox Church, located in the city of Bukhara.

The prayer house was laid in 1860. The second church and bell tower were laid in March 1875, built in November 21, 1875 according to the sketch of A. Benois, consecrated on November 21, 1875, closed in 1929, demolished the bell tower in 1931 year, the service was resumed in 1992, consecrated in honor of the "Saint Archangel Michael", designed for 300 members of the congregation , one priest at the church (as well as the nun-mistress and bell ringer data are given for the year 1930) , patronal feast on November 21. In 1860 Russian Orthodox Christians began to come to the resettlement village, which was located on the outskirts of Bukhara, and they built a wooden church. Consecrated and named the Temple of St. Alexander (presumably Nevsky). In 1872 the temple was badly damaged by fire.

In 1875, Bukhara began to come builders and soldiers. With their help was erected a new church building - already brick. The building was burnt brick. Like all the temples of Turkestan, he had a standard project. Initially, he was a member of the Tamerlane Military District, and later of the Samarkand Military District, then was under the jurisdiction of the Turkestan Diocesan Administration, and was called the "Church under the Administration of the Samarkand Military Chief," a local military temple, and since 1992 as the "Church of St. Michael the Archangel".

In 1929 the church was closed and turned into a warehouse, just as it was done in Samarkand, Termez and other cities.

In 1931, by decision of the revolutionary authorities, a separate bell tower was demolished. Its height was 5 meters, and on it were hung 5 bells, the largest of them was called the Archangel Michael.

In 1992, the temple was handed over to believers, it was consecrated and began to be restored. The iconostasis and church utensils were partially preserved by the parishioners. At the base of the iconostasis there are those icons most saved from destruction. In the temple there is a richly decorated iconostasis and church utensils. The interior of the prayer hall is made in the form of a cross. The temple is divided into several zones: the apse with the altar, the prayer room, the rest rooms of the priest and the refectory. Behind the temple there is an improvised bell tower.

 

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